Fish Oil Feeding Modulates the Expression of Hepatic MicroRNAs in a Western-Style Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rat Model
Omega‑3 and ‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can directly or indirectly regulate immune homeostasis via inflammatory pathways, and components of these pathways are crucial targets of microRNAs (miRNAs). However, no study has examined the changes in the miRNA transcriptome during PUFA‑regulated inflammatory processes. Here, we established PUFA diet‑induced autoimmune‑prone (AP) and autoimmune‑averse (AA) rat models, and studied their physical characteristics and immune status. Additionally, miRNA expression patterns in the rat models were compared using microarray assays and bioinformatic methods. A total of 54 miRNAs were differentially expressed in common between the AP and the AA rats, and the changes in rno‑miR‑19b‑3p, ‑146b‑5p and ‑183‑5p expression were validated using stem‑loop reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To better understand the mechanisms underlying PUFA‑regulated miRNA changes during inflammation, computational algorithms and biological databases were used to identify the target genes of the three validated miRNAs. Furthermore, Gene Ontology (GO) term annotation and KEGG pathway analyses of the miRNA targets further allowed to explore the potential implication of the miRNAs in inflammatory pathways. The predicted PUFA‑regulated inflammatory pathways included the Toll‑like receptor (TLR), T cell receptor (TCR), NOD‑like receptor (NLR), RIG‑I‑like receptor (RLR), mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the transforming growth factor‑β (TGF‑β) pathway. This study is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, on in vivo comparative profiling of miRNA transcriptomes in PUFA diet‑induced inflammatory rat models using a microarray approach. The results provide a useful resource for future investigation of the role of PUFA‑regulated miRNAs in immune homeostasis.