PTEN/PI3K/Akt/VEGF signaling and the cross talk to KRIT1, CCM2, and PDCD10 proteins in cerebral cavernous malformations

  title={PTEN/PI3K/Akt/VEGF signaling and the cross talk to KRIT1, CCM2, and PDCD10 proteins in cerebral cavernous malformations},
  author={Souvik Kar and Amir Samii and Helmut Bertalanffy},
  journal={Neurosurgical Review},
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are common vascular malformation of the brain and are associated with abnormal angiogenesis. Although the exact etiology and the underlying molecular mechanism are still under investigation, recent advances in the identification of the mutations in three genes and their interactions with different signaling pathways have shed light on our understanding of CCM pathogenesis. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is known to play a major role… CONTINUE READING


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