title={PROGRESS IN UREMIC TOXIN RESEARCH: The General Picture of Uremia},
  author={Cyrielle Alm{\'e}ras and {\`A}ngel Argil{\'e}s},
  journal={Seminars in Dialysis},
The clinical presentation and manifestations of uremia that constitute the uremic syndrome are presented. The first descriptions of patients with advanced or “terminal” renal failure who were treated with hemodialysis are evoked to illustrate the wide range of signs and symptoms that are associated even to a moderate decrease in renal function, presently referred to as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3–4. The kidney is a central organ guaranteeing the maintenance of the “milieu intérieur… 
Uremic toxins. Back to the future
Attention is drawn to the fact that substances recognized as uremic toxins are present in healthy individuals without manifestations of their negative effects, and therefore the opinion is expressed about the need to study the physiological significance of these solvents under normal glomerular filtration.
Urea and chronic kidney disease: the comeback of the century? (in uraemia research)
  • R. Vanholder, Tessa Gryp, G. Glorieux
  • Biology, Medicine
    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • 2018
Future efforts to improve the outcome of patients with CKD might be directed at further improving removal of solutes implied in the uraemic syndrome, including but not restricted to urea, also taking into account the impact of the intestine and (residual) renal function on solute concentration.
Clinical management of the uraemic syndrome in chronic kidney disease.
The Relationship Between Serum Lead Level and Uremic Pruritus in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Regular Hemodialysis
Serum Lead is a predictor for the incidence of pruritus in patients with end-stage renal disease maintained on hemodialysis and there was a statistically highly significant difference among different groups regarding Serum Lead (μg/dL).
Uremic pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and constrictive pericarditis in end‐stage renal disease: Insights and pathophysiology
The etiology, classification, clinical manifestations, diagnostic imaging tools, and treatment options of pericardial diseases in this population of end‐stage renal disease patients are described.
Mitochondria as a Source and a Target for Uremic Toxins
The role of mitochondria as both the target and source of pathological processes and toxic compounds during uremia are discussed and mitochondrion is drawn attention to the possibility of reducing the pathological consequences of Uremia by protecting mitochondria and reducing their role in the production of uremic toxins.
Alteration of human blood cell transcriptome in uremia
Gene set enrichment analysis showed that mRNA processing and transport, protein transport, chaperone functions, the unfolded protein response and genes involved in tumor genesis were prominently lower in uremia, while insulin-like growth factor activity, neuroactive receptor interaction, the complement system, lipoprotein metabolism and lipid transport were higher in Uremia.
Exercise in haemodialysis patients: impact on markers of inflammation
End-stage renal disease patients have a greatly increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly attributed to the elevated levels of systemic inflammation observed in uraemia, and the haemodialysis treatment itself induces a proinflammatory response but may provide an otherwise opportune time to complete supervised exercise.
Transcriptomics: A Step behind the Comprehension of the Polygenic Influence on Oxidative Stress, Immune Deregulation, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing and global health problem with a great economic burden for healthcare system. Therefore to slow down the progression of this condition is a main
Fatigue in hemodialysis patients: a review of current knowledge.


Uremic toxins, and their effect on intermediary metabolism.
  • M. Wills
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical chemistry
  • 1985
In the late stages of chronic renal damage the functional mass of the kidney is reduced and there is progression to renal insufficiency, usually called uremia, in which all aspects of renal function
What is new in uremic toxicity?
Uremic syndrome results from a malfunctioning of various organ systems due to the retention of compounds which, under normal conditions, would be excreted into the urine and/or metabolized by the
The immune system in end-stage renal disease.
Patients with end-stage renal disease present with an immunodeficient state paradoxically coexisting with signs of activation of immune system cells and that is accentuated rather than corrected by
Life-threatening vascular complications of severe hyperphosphataemia.
  • À. Argilés, J. Frapier, G. Mourad
  • Medicine
    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • 2003
A patient with systemic lesions due to calcium–phosphate deposition is reported here on, which illustrates an extreme case of clinical evolution in association with protracted hyperphosphataemia.
Quantitative indices of clinical uremia.
Neurobehavioral measures that are relevant to uremic symptomatology provide quantitative estimates of the clinically significant, whole-organism biologic effects of renal failure and its several treatments.
Molecular aspects of T- and B-cell function in uremia.
Therapeutic interventions to improve immune dysfunction include the enhancement of dialysis efficiency and the reduction of inflammatory alterations by the use of highly biocompatible dialyzers.
Review on uremic toxins: classification, concentration, and interindividual variability.
Concentrations of retention solutes in uremia vary over a broad range, from nanograms per liter to grams per liter, and a substantial number of molecules are protein bound and/or middle molecules, and many of these exert toxicity and are characterized by a high range of toxic over normal concentration (CU/CN ratio).
Effect of serum parathyroid hormone and bone marrow fibrosis on the response to erythropoietin in uremia.
In patients with uremia, the dose of erythropoietin needed to achieve an adequate hematocrit response may depend on the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the extent of bone marrow fibrosis.
Basic Science and Dialysis: Disturbances of Acquired Immunity in Hemodialysis Patients
A better understanding of the responsible molecular mechanisms of acquired immunity disturbances in hemodialysis patients will potentially lead to increased survival and a better quality of life in HD patients.
Hypertension in chronic renal disease.
A 32-year-old man was admitted to the Instituto Nacional de Ia Nutricion Salvador Zubiran for evaluation of chronic renal failure and severe hypertension. The patient's history included frequent