PROBLEMS OF THE ORIGIN OF REPTILES

@article{Carroll1969PROBLEMSOT,
  title={PROBLEMS OF THE ORIGIN OF REPTILES},
  author={Robert Lynn Carroll},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={1969},
  volume={44}
}
  • R. Carroll
  • Published 1 July 1969
  • Biology
  • Biological Reviews
The fossil records of the four living reptilian orders can be traced into the Triassic. The earlier ancestry of the turtles has not been established. Squamates and rhyncho‐cephalians evolved from the Late Permian eosuchians; crocodiles from the thecodonts. The ancestry of the eosuchians and thecodonts is to be found in the central stock of Permo‐Carboniferous reptiles, the captorhinomorphs. The earliest captorhino‐morphs, from the Lower Pennsylvanian, are already fully developed reptiles. The… Expand
A captorhinomorph reptile from the lower Permian of Europe
Batropetes truncatus, a small captorhinomorph from the Lower Permian of southeastern Germany (described by Credner as Petrobates) represents a specialized group of reptiles, clearly distinct fromExpand
The origin and early evolutionary history of amniotes.
  • R. Reisz
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Trends in ecology & evolution
  • 1997
TLDR
The origin of this successful group involves evolutionary innovations that are associated with the development of the cleidoic egg and related reproductive strategies, and are therefore not represented directly in the fossil record. Expand
The Ancestry of Reptiles
TLDR
The ancestry of captorhinomorph reptiles from the gephyrostegid anthracosaurs can be firmly established and the nature of the amphibian-reptilian transition must be studied on the basis of relicts of earlier groups which are contemporary with true reptiles. Expand
EARLY EVOLUTION OF REPTILES
TLDR
The fossil record of early amniotes is complete enough to establish their relationships to the major groups living today and provides an opportunity to consider the evolutionary processes associated with a period of major radiation. Expand
Chapter 13 Patterns of Amphibian Evolution: An Extended Example of the Incompleteness of the Fossil Record
TLDR
There is an extensive radiation of amphibians within the Lower Carboniferous, which might be interpreted as evidence of the differentiation of several distinct lineages at the level of the rhipidistians. Expand
CHAPTER 4 – BIOGEOGRAPHY OF PRIMITIVE AMNIOTES
TLDR
Despite minor differences in recent phylogenetic analyses, the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic distributions of the following taxa are considered by all to be critical to an understanding of the origin of Amniotes. Expand
Amniotes, the Origin of
TLDR
Within Amniota proper, the ‘protorothyrid’ Hylonomus may be basal part of a clade that includes both captorhinids and diapsids, despite some analyses linking it to the latter group only. Expand
Assembling the history of the Parareptilia: phylogeny, diversification, and a new definition of the clade
TLDR
The results show that a significant increase in diversification rate could be recorded only among Triassic procolophonoids, making it difficult to interpret evolutionary novelties such as herbivory or impedance-matching hearing as being key innovations that might have driven diversification. Expand
A Phylogenetic Perspective on Locomotory Strategies in Early Amniotes
SYNOPSIS. Past approaches to understanding the evolution of locomotory strategies among Paleozoic amniotes (‘‘primitive reptiles’’ of previous parlance) have been influenced by preservational bias:Expand
Permo-Carboniferous Paleoecology and Morphotypic Series
TLDR
The “trends” of evolutionary change from Hylonomus to Thrinaxodon can best be seen if these two and Haptodus are used as an evolutionary series, the stages that are missing interpolated, and the roles of the other genera evaluated on the basis of this more or less idealized, conceptual series. Expand
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References

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TLDR
It is concluded that Araeoscelis should be classified among the captorhinomorphs, rather than as an euryapsid, that diadectids can be considered aberrant offshoots of the same stock which gave rise to typical primitive reptiles, and that pelycosaurs and romeriids share a common ancestry above the level of the limnoscelids. Expand
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TLDR
Romeriscus is the earliest and most primitive reptile yet known, but it is probably already too late and too specialized to be ancestral to the more advanced Carboniferous and Permian captorhinomorphs and pelycosaurs. Expand
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The establishment of a series of stages which show intermediates between typical fish structures and those of the homologous organs in Amphibia may be regarded as a solution to the problem of the origin of the Amphibia. Expand
A LIMNOSCELID REPTILE FROM THE MIDDLE PENNSYLVANIAN
A new genus and species of limnoscelid captorhinomorph, Limnostygis relictus, is described from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Florence, Nova Scotia. This genus is represented, along with at least threeExpand
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  • Biology
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TLDR
The Millerosauria provide a starting point for the development of all sauropsids except perhaps the Chelonia, and the real resemblance of the millerosaurs to primitive captorhinids and pelycosaurs is evidence of a common ultimate derivation from anthracosaurs. Expand
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Ctenospondylus aff. C. casei. Trackways indicate the presence of other tetrapods. The new cotylosaur has an important bearing on the problem of the origin of the diadectomorph cotylosaurs. TheExpand
Kotlassia prima Amalitzky
The skeletal material of Kotlassia prima , a primitive tetrapod from the Upper Permian of the North Dvina River in northern Russia, is described and figured in detail. The various specimens permit aExpand
III. The Genus Gephyrostegus
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  • Biology
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
  • 1967
TLDR
Gephyrostegus bohemicus Jaekel from the Upper Carboniferous of Nyran is the oldest and most primitive member of the Seymouriamorpha, and a description of the palate, previously unknown, is made possible. Expand
The Osteology of the Reptiles
IN no domain of zoological science have the con tributions of American naturalists been more splendid than in that of vertebrate palaeontology, and in the list of pioneer workers in this domain anExpand
THE ORIGIN OF THE ASTRAGALUS OF REPTILES
TLDR
New paleontologic evidence is described which supplements and supports Schaeffer's conclusions concerning the origin of the reptilian tarsus and in particular the astragalar bone. Expand
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