author={John M. Lichter},
  journal={Ecological Monographs},
  • J. Lichter
  • Published 1 November 1998
  • Environmental Science
  • Ecological Monographs
Vegetation and soil properties were described across a well-dated sand-dune chronosequence bordering northern Lake Michigan to document patterns and rates of primary succession and forest ecosystem development, and to determine environmental constraints that potentially drive succession and regulate species diversity. The site experienced frequent and continuing formation of 72 shore-parallel dune ridges over the past 2375 yr. Across the chro- nosequence represented by the youngest 13 dune… 

Patterns of Invertebrate Community Composition and Functional Structure Across a Dune Succession Gradient

The world’s most extensive freshwater sand dunes lie along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, USA. These dunes follow a succession gradient from open canopy, grass-covered dunes to forested dunes

Patterns of Trophic-level Diversity Associated with Herbaceous Dune Vegetation Across a Primary Successional Gradient

Examination of herbaceous vertical vegetation structure and diversity in plants, arthropods, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in three Great Lakes sand dune chronosequences found vertical structure of vegetation can be important in explaining richness and abundance in other trophic levels across a successional gradient.

Shrub expansion stimulates soil C and N storage along a coastal soil chronosequence

Expansion of woody vegetation in grasslands is a worldwide phenomenon with implications for C and N cycling at local, regional and global scales. Although woody encroachment is often accompanied by

Composition, Structure, and Trajectories of Great Lakes Coastal Pine Forests in Relation to Historical Baselines and Disturbance History

Comparisons of overstory and understory dominance suggested a continued trend away from pine dominance toward mesophytic species in all stands, suggesting restoration of disturbance regimes and open canopy conditions may be necessary to maintain a pine component in these ecosystems.

Relationship between community structure and seed bank to describe successional dynamics of an Atlantic Coast maritime forest1

Relationships between current community composition and the soil seed bank were investigated within a maritime forest on Virginia's Eastern Shore, indicating that replacement of existing species is likely to occur from future seed rain, especially from bird-dispersal.

Thirty years of primary succession on the Storbreen Glacier Foreland, Jotunheim, Norway : species populations, community dynamics and environmental influences

Changes in arctic-alpine vegetation composition over 30 years in a successional sequence on the Storbreen glacier foreland, Southern Norway, and in the adjacent regional vegetation, are analysed. The

Spatial indicators of plant community assembly from a 453-year sand-dune chronosequence

Background : We explored evidence for spatial patterning in vegetation across a sand-dune chronosequence spanning 453 years of primary succession to test for indications of a temporal signature of

Cryptogams signify key transition of bacteria and fungi in Arctic sand dune succession

The nonalignment of aboveground vs. belowground changes suggests that cryptogams can drive succession towards vascular plant dominance through microbially mediated facilitation in eroded Arctic soil.

Hierarchical organization of a Sardinian sand dune plant community

The results suggest that Sardinian sand dune plant communities are organized hierarchically, structured by sand binding foundation species on the fore-dunes, sand burial in the middle-dune and increasingly successful seedling recruitment, growth and competitive dominance in the back-dUNE.

Nitrogen and phosphorous budgets in a lacustrine sand dune ecosystem

Abstract Atmospheric nitrogen input of about 1.622 g m-2 year-1 is a major source of nitrogen for plants in the foredunes of Lake Huron at Pinery Provincial Park. The concentration of total nitrogen



Rates of Succession and Soil Changes on Southern Lake Michigan Sand Dunes

  • J. Olson
  • Environmental Science
    Botanical Gazette
  • 1958
Soil analyses of carbon, nitrogen, moisture equivalent, carbonates, acidity, and cation exchange relations show how most soil improvement of the original barren dune sand occurs within about a thousand years after stabilization, which fits into a mathematical framework for analyzing ecological succession and climax.

Mechanisms of Primary Succession Following Deglaciation at Glacier Bay, Alaska

It is concluded that no single factor or mechanism fully accounts for primary succession at Glacier Bay and that changes in competitive balance accompanying successional changes in environment provide the mechanism for changes in species dominance.

Species Composition and Diversity During Secondary Succession of Coniferous Forests in the Western Cascade Mountains of Oregon

Pacific Northwest old-growth forests are relatively poor in species, but moderately high in heterogeneity values, with heterogeneity peaking at 15 years and richness at 20 years after clearcutting, broadcast burning, and planting with Douglas-fir.

The Role of Life History Processes in Primary Succession on an Alaskan Floodplain

The pattern of primary succession on the floodplain of the Tanana River in interior Alaska resulted largely from interactions between stochastic events and life history traits of the dom? inant

Facilitation of tree seedling establishment in a sand dune succession

A nucleated pattern of establishment by pine seed- lings of Pinus strobus and P. resinosa around pre-established oak trees of Quercus rubra in a sand dune succession in Ontario, Canada was examined

Tree Species Diversity in the Eastern Deciduous Forest with Particular Reference to North Central Florida

  • C. Monk
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1967
The noted increase in diversity from successional to climax communities is related in part to the progressive addition of the climax pioneers and climax exclusives while maintaining a few successionals in the population.


The first 40 yr of forest succession on permanent plots at the Harvard Forest in central New England followed the initial floristic composition model of Forest succession, but there was more surviving hemlock advance regeneration and a lower density of some shade-intolerant early dominant species.

Possible Ecological Mechanisms for Loss of Vernal‐Herb Diversity in Logged Eastern Deciduous Forests

The data indicate some species of vernal herbs are far more tolerant of disturbance than others, and that sensitive species can be identified and utilized as indicators of community integrity and diversity.

Plant Diversity in a Chronosequence at Glacier Bay, Alaska

Eight sites of known age were sampled in Glacier Bay National Monument, Alaska, to examine the changes in plant diversity during primary succession in that region, and data suggested a sequence of wave—like invasions on sites by strata, largely in order of increasing size.

Population Development of Rain Forest Trees on a Chronosequence of Hawaiian Lava Flows

A comparison between plant populations on the chronosequence and on one other flow, aged ~ 1400 yr but containing some volcanic ash, indicated that ash may alter some aspects of forest development.