PRESENCE OF BOUND IMMUNOGLOBULINS AND COMPLEMENT IN THE MYOCARDIUM IN ACUTE RHEUMATIC FEVER. ASSOCIATION WITH CARDIAC FAILURE.

@article{Kaplan1964PRESENCEOB,
  title={PRESENCE OF BOUND IMMUNOGLOBULINS AND COMPLEMENT IN THE MYOCARDIUM IN ACUTE RHEUMATIC FEVER. ASSOCIATION WITH CARDIAC FAILURE.},
  author={Melvin H. Kaplan and Robert P. Bolande and Louis Rakita and John D. Blair},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  year={1964},
  volume={271},
  pages={
          637-45
        }
}
RECENT evidence has supported the concept that the Group A streptococcus possesses antigens immunologically related to human heart tissue1 2 3 and that crossreactive autoimmunity to heart may be stimulated in certain persons after streptococcal infection.4 It has been observed further that such crossreactive autoantibodies are associated with both the poststreptococcal state and rheumatic heart disease.4 Consistent with the possible role of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever… 
Streptococcus and rheumatic fever
  • M. Cunningham
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current opinion in rheumatology
  • 2012
Purpose of reviewTo give an overview of the current hypotheses of the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever and group A streptococcal autoimmune sequelae of the heart valve and brain. Recent findingsHuman
Rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease, and the streptococcal connection: the role of streptococcal antigens cross-reactive with heart tissue.
  • M. H. Kaplan
  • Medicine, Biology
    Reviews of infectious diseases
  • 1979
TLDR
Combined cell-mediated and humoral autoimmune mechanisms directed to one or more cross-reactive antigens in the tissues, selective binding of streptococci to tissues, role of circulating immune complexes, and linkage with histocompatibility antIGens are considered.
Immunopathology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The demonstration of Coxsackie group B viral antigen in the myocardium
TLDR
Findings suggested that Coxsackie group B virus may be etiologically related to the pathogenesis of acute rheumatic fever.
Auto-immunity and rheumatic fever. Some immunopathologic and epidemiologic considerations.
TLDR
Serologic studies demonstrating a streptococcal antigen cross-reactive specifically with heart tissue suggest that streptitiscal infection may serve for induction of autoantibodies to heart in susceptible persons.
Molecular mimicry in the autoimmune pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease
TLDR
Evidence for the hypotheses of molecular mimicry and epitope spreading are reviewed and the potential pathogenic mechanisms by which the immune response against the group A streptococcus attacks the rheumatic valve leading to chronic rhematic heart disease are unraveled.
From rheumatic fever to Libman-Sacks endocarditis: is there any possible pathogenetic link?
TLDR
In the current paper, the possible links between the heart involvement in RF and APS are summarized.
Immunoglobulins and complement in chronic myocardial disease. A myocardial biopsy study.
TLDR
Endomyocardial biopsy specimens from 21 patients with chronic myocardial disease have been examined by direct immunofluorescence for the presence of immunoglobulins and complement factor C3 and it is suggested that the deposits represent an autoimmune reaction to antigens on the fibres and not a trapping of circulating antigen-antibody complexes.
Rheumatic Fever, Autoimmunity, and Molecular Mimicry: The Streptococcal Connection
  • M. Cunningham
  • Biology, Medicine
    International reviews of immunology
  • 2014
TLDR
Rheumatic carditis, Sydenham chorea and a new group of behavioral disorders called pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections are reviewed with consideration of autoantibody and T cell responses and the role of molecular mimicry between the heart, brain and group A Streptococcus.
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TLDR
At the younger age levels rheumatic fever follows a variable but usually recognizable pattern, with carditis, arthralgia, chorea and subcutaneous nodules as major manifestations and with fever, abdominal pains, skin rashes, epistaxis and changes in the electrocardiogram, sedimentation rate and white-cell count as minor manifestations of the disease.
IMMUNOLOGIC RELATION OF STREPTOCOCCAL AND TISSUE ANTIGENS. III. PRESENCE IN HUMAN SERA OF STREPTOCOCCAL ANTIBODY CROSS-REACTIVE WITH HEART TISSUE. ASSOCIATION WITH STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION, RHEUMATIC FEVER, AND GLOMERULONEPHRITIS.
TLDR
Sera from patients with recent streptococcal infection or non-suppurative sequelae exhibit with variable frequency a precipitin reaction in agar gel with a partially purified strePTococcal antigen, providing evidence that induction of cross-reactive autoantibody to heart in certain individuals is associated with streptitiscal infection.
IMMUNOLOGIC STUDIES OF HEART TISSUE III. OCCURRENCE OF BOUND GAMMA GLOBULIN IN AURICULAR APPENDAGES FROM RHEUMATIC HEARTS. RELATIONSHIP TO CERTAIN HISTOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE
TLDR
It is suggested that deposition of gamma globulin and the eosinophilic alteration associated with such deposition are related to certain of the pathologic changes of rheumatic heart disease.
Immunologic studies of heart tissue. IV. Serologic reactions with human heart tissue as revealed by immunofluorescent methods: isoimmune, Wassermann, and autoimmune reactions.
TLDR
Serologic reactions with homologous or autologous heart were observed particularly frequently with sera from rheumatic patients approximately 2 weeks following cardiac surgery, as well as in some non-rheumatic Patients following cardiac or thoracic surgery or acute myocardial infarction.
DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PHYSICAL SIGNS OF RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE
TLDR
Observations on the disappearance of certain physical signs considered characteristic of rheumatic involvement of the heart, as well as the persistence of characteristic murmurs after subsidence of the infection, are presented.
IMMUNOLOGIC RELATION OF STREPTOCOCCAL AND TISSUE ANTIGENS. I. PROPERTIES OF AN ANTIGEN IN CERTAIN STRAINS OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI EXHIBITING AN IMMUNOLOGIC CROSS-REACTION WITH HUMAN HEART TISSUE.
TLDR
The immunologic relationship between streptococcal cell wall antigen and myofibers and smooth muscle of vessel walls is consistent with the hypothesis that bound γ-globulin observed in rheumatic hearts in these sites is derived from immune bodies.
Pathophysiology of Rheumatic Fever: Alterations in the Na24 Space and in the Exchangeable Sodium and Potassium Contents
TLDR
Radioisotopic technics were used to explore physiologic aberrations that may characterize individuals with acute rheumatic fever, and the exchangeable sodium content of the body correlated well with the radiosodium space, suggesting that the intracellular content of sodium or that in bone is increased during acute rHEumatic fever.
IMMUNOLOGIC RELATION OF STREPTOCOCCAL AND TISSUE ANTIGENS II. CROSS-REACTION OF ANTISERA TO MAMMALIAN HEART TISSUE WITH A CELL WALL CONSTITUENT OF CERTAIN STRAINS OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI
Further evidence of a cross-reactive relationship between a cell wall antigen of certain Group A streptococcal strains and mammalian heart tissue is provided by the demonstration that goat antisera
Short-term hormone therapy; its effect in active rheumatic carditis of varying duration.
TLDR
In a previous report of the effect of short-term hormone therapy in 55 patient attacks of active carditis of three to twenty-one days' duration, it was demonstrated that in the majority of patients, early adequate therapy for an average period of seven days resulted in no overt residual cardiac damage.
A Clinical Study of 1,000 Consecutive Cases of Mitral Stenosis Two to Nine Years after Mitral Valvuloplasty
TLDR
After substantial improvement lasting a year or more, 228 of this series deteriorated; the factors affecting this deterioration are discussed, of which mitral insufficiency, an inadequate valvuloplasty, and recurrent rheumatic fever are the most striking.
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