PML involvement in the p73-mediated E1A-induced suppression of EGFR and induction of apoptosis in head and neck cancers
The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is a major component to govern the PML nuclear body (NB) assembly and function. Although it is well defined that PML NB is a site recruiting sumoylated proteins, the mechanism by which PML protein regulates the process remains unclear. Here we show that PML3, a specific PML isoform, interacts with and recruits TIP60 to PML NBs. Our biochemical characterization demonstrates that PML3 physically interacts with TIP60 via its N-terminal 364 amino acids. Importantly, this portion of TIP60 is sufficient to target to the PML NBs, suggesting that PML3-TIP60 interaction is sufficient for targeting TIP60 to the NBs. The PML3-TIP60 interaction is specific, since the region of TIP60 binding is not conserved in other PML isoforms. The physical interaction between PML3 and TIP60 protects TIP60 from Mdm2-mediated degradation, suggesting that PML3 competes with MDM2 for binding to TIP60. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis indicates that the PML3-TIP60 interaction modulates the nuclear body distribution and mobility of TIP60. Conversely, the distribution and mobility of TIP60 are perturbed in PML3-deficient cells, accompanied by aberrations in DNA damage-repairing response. Thus, PML3 orchestrates the distribution, dynamics, and function of TIP60. Our findings suggest a novel regulatory mechanism by which the PML3 and TIP60 tumor suppressors cooperate to ensure genomic stability.