author={A. Youdin and F. Shu},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
We investigate the formation of planetesimals via the gravitational instability of solids that have settled to the midplane of a circumstellar disk. Vertical shear between the gas and a subdisk of solids induces turbulent mixing that inhibits gravitational instability. Working in the limit of small, well-coupled particles, we find that the mixing becomes ineffective when the surface density ratio of solids to gas exceeds a critical value. Solids in excess of this precipitation limit can undergo… Expand

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