PIXL: Planetary Instrument for X-Ray Lithochemistry

  title={PIXL: Planetary Instrument for X-Ray Lithochemistry},
  author={Abigail C. Allwood and Lawrence A. Wade and Marc Christopher Foote and William T. Elam and Joel A. Hurowitz and Steven J. Battel and Douglas E. Dawson and Robert W. Denise and Eric M. Ek and Martin S. Gilbert and Matthew E. King and Carl Christian Liebe and Todd W. Parker and David Arge Klevang Pedersen and David Randall and Robert F. Sharrow and Michael E. Sondheim and George Allen and Kenneth E. Arnett and Mitchell H. Au and Christophe Basset and Mathias Benn and John C. Bousman and David F. Braun and Robert J. Calvet and Benton C. Clark and Luca Cinquini and Sterling Conaby and Henry A. Conley and Scott Davidoff and Jenna Delaney and Troelz Denver and Ernesto Diaz and Gary B. Doran and Joan Ervin and Michael Evans and David Flannery and Ning Gao and Johannes Gross and John P. Grotzinger and Brett Hannah and Jackson T. Harris and Cathleen M. Harris and Yejun He and Christopher M. Heirwegh and Christina Hernandez and Eric Hertzberg and Robert Hodyss and James R. Holden and Christopher Hummel and Matthew A. Jadusingh and John Leif J{\o}rgensen and Jonathan H. Kawamura and Amarit Kitiyakara and Kris J. Kozaczek and James L. Lambert and Peter Lawson and Yang Liu and Thomas S. Luchik and Kristen M. Macneal and S{\o}ren N{\o}rvang Madsen and Scott M. McLennan and Patrick J. McNally and Patrick M{\'e}ras and Richard E. Muller and James J. Napoli and Bret J. Naylor and Peter Nemere and Igor Yu. Ponomarev and Raul M. Perez and Napat Pootrakul and Raul A. Romero and Rogelio Rosas and Jared Sachs and Rembrandt T. Schaefer and Michael Schein and Timothy P. Setterfield and Vritika Singh and E. Young Song and Mary Soria and Paul C. Stek and Nicholas Ryan Tallarida and Donald R. Thompson and Michael M. Tice and Lars Timmermann and Violet Torossian and Allan H. Treiman and Shihchuan Tsai and Kyle Uckert and Juan Villalvazo and Mandy Wang and Daniel W. Wilson and Shana C. Worel and Payam Zamani and M. P. Zappe and Fang Zhong and Richard Zimmerman},
  journal={Space Science Reviews},
Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry (PIXL) is a micro-focus X-ray fluorescence spectrometer mounted on the robotic arm of NASA’s Perseverance rover. PIXL will acquire high spatial resolution observations of rock and soil chemistry, rapidly analyzing the elemental chemistry of a target surface. In 10 seconds, PIXL can use its powerful 120 μm-diameter X-ray beam to analyze a single, sand-sized grain with enough sensitivity to detect major and minor rock-forming elements, as well as many… 
Introduction: Looking for evidence of ancient life on Mars using the “Perseverance” rover is the key objective of NASA’s Mars 2020 mission [1]. Onboard the rover, the PIXL (Planetary Instrument for
Perseverance’s Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) Investigation
The Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) is a robotic arm-mounted instrument on NASA’s Perseverance rover. SHERLOC has two primary
Mars 2020 Mission Overview
The Mars 2020 mission will seek the signs of ancient life on Mars and will identify, prepare, document, and cache a set of samples for possible return to Earth by a follow-on mission. Mars 2020 and
Calibration of the SHERLOC Deep Ultraviolet Fluorescence–Raman Spectrometer on the Perseverance Rover
We describe the wavelength calibration of the spectrometer for the scanning of habitable environments with Raman and luminescence for organics and chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument onboard NASA’s
Astrobiological Potential of Fe/Mg Smectites with Special Emphasis on Jezero Crater, Mars 2020 Landing Site.
Life is known to adapt in accordance with its surrounding environment and sustainable resources available to it. Since harsh conditions would have precluded any possible aerobic evolution of life at
False biosignatures on Mars: anticipating ambiguity
It is often acknowledged that the search for life on Mars might produce false positive results, particularly via the detection of objects, patterns or substances that resemble the products of life in


Automating X-ray Fluorescence Analysis for Rapid Astrobiology Surveys.
Operational approaches to overcome bottlenecks by specialized early-stage science data processing by improving methods for onboard and ground-side automation and illustrating new astrobiological science capabilities unavailable in previous planetary instruments are demonstrated.
Alpha Particle X‐Ray Spectrometer (APXS): Results from Gusev crater and calibration report
[1] The chemical composition of rocks and soils on Mars analyzed during the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mission was determined by X-ray analyses with the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS).
An empirical derivation of the X-ray optic transmission profile used in calibrating the Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry (PIXL) for Mars 2020
Calibration of the prototype Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry (PIXL) selected for Mars 2020 has commenced with an empirical derivation of the X-ray optic transmission profile. Through a
The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Body Unit and Combined System Tests
The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity provides remote compositional information using the first laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) on a planetary
The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description
ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the “Curiosity” rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the
A global Mars dust composition refined by the Alpha‐Particle X‐ray Spectrometer in Gale Crater
Modern Martian dust is similar in composition to the global soil unit and bulk basaltic Mars crust, but it is enriched in S and Cl. The Alpha Particle X‐ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Mars Science
Precision Instrument Targeting via Image Registration for the Mars 2020 Rover
This work shows that given a target located on a previously acquired image, the rover can align this with a new image to visually locate the target and refine the current pointing, and employs existing ORB features for landmark-based image registration and describes and theoretically justify a novel approach to filtering false landmark matches.
Elemental Composition of the Martian Crust
Spacecraft data suggest that martian meteorites are not representative of older, more voluminous crust and prompt questions about their use in defining diagnostic geochemical characteristics and in constraining mantle compositional models for Mars.
Observations of interplanetary dust by the Juno magnetometer investigation
One of the Juno magnetometer investigation's star cameras was configured to search for unidentified objects during Juno's transit en route to Jupiter. This camera detects and registers luminous
APXS-derived chemistry of the Bagnold dune sands: Comparisons with Gale crater soils and the global martian average
We present Alpha‐Particle X‐ray Spectrometer (APXS) data for the active Bagnold dune field within the Gale impact crater (Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission). We derive an APXS‐based average