PIRATES IN GOWNS AND CAPS: GENTRY LAW-BREAKING IN THE MID-MING

@article{Higgins1980PIRATESIG,
  title={PIRATES IN GOWNS AND CAPS: GENTRY LAW-BREAKING IN THE MID-MING},
  author={Roland L. Higgins},
  journal={Ming Studies},
  year={1980},
  volume={1980},
  pages={30-37}
}
AbstractIn 1548, a high-ranking Ming dynasty civil official named Zhu Wan was serving as the grand coordinator for coastal defense in the two provinces of Zhejiang and Fujian. In a memorial to the throne he summed up the difficulties he was facing with the following turn of phrase: “Doing away with foreign pirates (wai guo dao) is easy, but doing away with Chinese pirates is difficult. Doing away with Chinese pirates along the coast is still easy, but doing away with Chinese pirates in gowns… 
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OF DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in History in the College of Social Sciences and Humanities of Northeastern University