PINE SISKIN PREYS ON EGG MASSES OF THE SPRUCE BUDWORM, CHORISTONEURA FUMIFERANA (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)

@article{Jennings1983PINESP,
  title={PINE SISKIN PREYS ON EGG MASSES OF THE SPRUCE BUDWORM, CHORISTONEURA FUMIFERANA (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)},
  author={Daniel T. Jennings and Hewlette S. Crawford},
  journal={The Canadian Entomologist},
  year={1983},
  volume={115},
  pages={439 - 440}
}
During preoutbreak periods before spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), populations reach epidemic levels, birds can play an important role in regulating budworm abundance (Gage and Miller 1978). All life stages of the spruce budworm are subject to predation by birds, but documentation of predation on budworm eggs is sparse (Hope 1945). 
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