PHYSIOLOGICAL EXOPHORIA

@article{Freier1983PHYSIOLOGICALE,
  title={PHYSIOLOGICAL EXOPHORIA},
  author={B E Freier and L. D. Pickwell},
  journal={Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics},
  year={1983},
  volume={3}
}
Abstract The evidence for the existence, nature and degree of physiological exophoria was examined with respect to a sample of 663 optometric patients. It was found that the mean value for heterophoria is the same for distance and near vision up to the age of the early twenties. After this age, the mean value for distance heterophoria remains unchanged throughout life whilst there is a change in the value for near vision towards exophoria, giving 5 A physiological exophoria. No differences… 

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  • L. Pickwell
  • Medicine
    Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians
  • 1985
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The amount of exophoria had not affected the fusional reserves and the presence of hetrophoria was not related to the visual complaints like asthenopia and transient diplopia.

The effect of incipient presbyopia on the correspondence between accommodation and vergence

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Presbyopia among normal individuals

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  • Medicine, Psychology
    Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
  • 2003
Hyperopia and low amplitude of accommodation at the age of 20 might predispose to early development of presbyopia in normal individuals.

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