Fifteen-week-old rats were subjected to unloading induced by hindlimb suspension for 3 weeks. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and forkhead box-containing protein O1 (FOXO1) mRNA levels and fiber profiles of the soleus and plantaris muscles in rats subjected to unloading (unloaded group) were determined and compared with those of age-matched control rats (control group). The body weight and both the soleus and plantaris muscle weights were lower in the unloaded group than in the control group. The PGC-1α mRNA was downregulated in the soleus, but not in the plantaris muscle of the unloaded group. The FOXO1 mRNA was upregulated in both the soleus and plantaris muscles of the unloaded group. The oxidative enzyme activity was reduced in the soleus, but not in the plantaris muscle of the unloaded group. The percentage of type I fibers was decreased and the percentages of type IIA and IIC fibers were increased in the soleus muscle of the unloaded group, whereas there was no change in fiber type distribution in the plantaris muscle of the unloaded group. Atrophy of all types of fibers was observed in both the soleus and plantaris muscles of the unloaded group. We conclude that decreased oxidative capacity and fiber atrophy in unloaded skeletal muscles are associated with decreased PGC-1α and increased FOXO1 mRNA levels.