The glucose transporter GLUT1 is required for ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis
Breast cancer is an international public health concern in which an optimal treatment plan requires a precise staging. Both MRI and PET imaging techniques have made significant progress in the last decades with constant improvements that made both modalities clinically relevant in several stages of breast cancer management and follow-up. On one hand, specific breast MRI permits high diagnostic accuracy for local tumor staging, and whole-body MRI can also be of great use in distant staging, eventually accompanied by organ-specific MRI sequences. Moreover, many different MRI sequences can be performed, including functional MRI, letting us foresee important improvements in breast cancer characterization in the future. On the contrary, (18)F-FDG-PET has a high diagnostic performance for the detection of distant metastases, and several other tracers currently under development may profoundly affect breast cancer management in the future with better determination of different types of breast cancers allowing personalized treatments. As a consequence PET/MR is a promising emerging technology, and it is foreseeable that in cases where both PET and MRI data are needed, a hybrid acquisition is justified when available. However, at this stage of deployment of such hybrid scanners in a clinical setting, more data are needed to demonstrate their added value beyond just patient comfort of having to undergo a single examination instead of two, and the higher confidence of diagnostic interpretation of these co-registered images. Optimized imaging protocols are still being developed and are prone to provide more efficient hybrid protocols with a potential improvement in diagnostic accuracy. More convincing studies with larger number of patients as well as cost-effectiveness studies are needed. This article provides insights into the current state-of-the-art of PET/MR in patients with breast cancer and gives an outlook on future developments of both imaging techniques and potential applications in the future.