PERICONCEPTIONAL VITAMIN USE, DIETARY FOLATE, AND THE OCCURRENCE OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS

@article{Shaw1995PERICONCEPTIONALVU,
  title={PERICONCEPTIONAL VITAMIN USE, DIETARY FOLATE, AND THE OCCURRENCE OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS},
  author={Gary M. Shaw and Donna M. Schaffer and Ellen M Velie and Kimberly B. Morland and J. A. Harris},
  journal={Epidemiology},
  year={1995},
  volume={6},
  pages={219–226}
}
With a case-control study, we investigated whether periconceptional intake of supplemental or dietary folate reduced the risk of having a neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancy. Mothers of 549 (88% of eligible) cases and 540 (88%) controls were interviewed in person about vitamin supplements used in either the 3 months before or the 3 months after conception and also about usual diet in the 3 months before conception. Women with any use of a folic acid-containing vitamin in the 3 months… 
Periconceptional nutrient intakes and risks of neural tube defects in California.
TLDR
Dietary intake of several nutrients contributing to one-carbon metabolism and oxidative stress were associated with reduced NTD risk, and mothers' intake of vitamin supplements was modestly if at all associated with a lowered risk of NTDs.
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Folate Intake and the Risk of Neural Tube Defects: An Estimation of Dose-Response
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Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and anthropometric measures at birth in a cohort of pregnant women in Valencia, Spain.
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It is suggested that periconceptional use of FA supplements greater than 1 mg/d is associated with decreased birth height and may entail a risk of decreased birth weight.
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Total folate dose, rather than supplemental folate alone, should be considered in formulating public health guidelines for NTD prevention, suggesting that NTD risk declines markedly with modest increases of total folate in early pregnancy.
Folic Acid and Homocysteine as Risk Factors for Neural Tube Defects
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This observation was verified in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, which observed a 72% reduction in NTD recurrence risk when the maternal diet was supplemented daily with 4 mg of folic acid.
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This study examines the association of diet quality with NTD risk, using food frequency data from a population-based case-control study of NTDs, and suggested that the effect may be restricted to certain groups of women who may be at greater nutritional risk.
Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring.
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Dietary intakes of choline were associated with reduced NTD risks and study findings for dietary components other than folic acid offer additional clues about the complex etiologies of NTDs.
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