PD-1 Blockade in Mismatch Repair-Deficient, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

@article{Cercek2022PD1BI,
  title={PD-1 Blockade in Mismatch Repair-Deficient, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.},
  author={Andrea Cercek and Melissa A Lumish and Jenna Sinopoli and Jill Weiss and Jinru Shia and Michelle F Lamendola-Essel and Imane El Dika and Neil H. Segal and Marina Shcherba and Ryan Sugarman and Zsofia K. Stadler and Rona Yaeger and J. Joshua Smith and Beno{\^i}t Rousseau and Guillem Argil{\'e}s and Miteshkumar Patel and Avni Mukund Desai and Leonard B. Saltz and Maria Widmar and Krishna Iyer and Janie Y Zhang and Nicole Gianino and Christopher Crane and Paul B. Romesser and Emmanouil P. Pappou and Philip P. Paty and Julio Garcia-Aguilar and Mithat Gonen and Marc J. Gollub and Martin R. Weiser and Kurt A. Schalper and Luis A. Diaz},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  year={2022}
}
BACKGROUND Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation followed by surgical resection of the rectum is a standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. A subset of rectal cancer is caused by a deficiency in mismatch repair. Because mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancer is responsive to programmed death 1 (PD-1) blockade in the context of metastatic disease, it was hypothesized that checkpoint blockade could be effective in patients with mismatch repair-deficient, locally advanced… 

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Assessing the change in biomarkers associated with TME following standard neoadjuvant cCRT in rectal cancer suggests that the biomarkers noted to be upregulated could be used for designing appropriate clinical trials and development of therapeutic targeted drug therapy in an effort to achieve better response to neoadedjuvant therapy, increasing clinical and pathological complete response rates and improved overall outcomes.

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This review attempts to frame the rapidly growing data in LARC in context of disease and patient risk factors, to inform optimal, personalized treatment of patients with LARC.

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