PD-1 Blockade in Mismatch Repair-Deficient, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

  title={PD-1 Blockade in Mismatch Repair-Deficient, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.},
  author={Andrea Cercek and Melissa A Lumish and Jenna Sinopoli and Jill Weiss and Jinru Shia and Michelle F Lamendola-Essel and Imane El Dika and Neil H. Segal and Marina Shcherba and Ryan Sugarman and Zsofia K. Stadler and Rona Yaeger and J. Joshua Smith and Beno{\^i}t Rousseau and Guillem Argil{\'e}s and Miteshkumar Patel and Avni Mukund Desai and Leonard B. Saltz and Maria Widmar and Krishna Iyer and Janie Y Zhang and Nicole Gianino and Christopher Crane and Paul B. Romesser and Emmanouil P. Pappou and Philip P. Paty and Julio Garcia-Aguilar and Mithat Gonen and Marc J. Gollub and Martin R. Weiser and Kurt A. Schalper and Luis A. Diaz},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
BACKGROUND Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation followed by surgical resection of the rectum is a standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. A subset of rectal cancer is caused by a deficiency in mismatch repair. Because mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancer is responsive to programmed death 1 (PD-1) blockade in the context of metastatic disease, it was hypothesized that checkpoint blockade could be effective in patients with mismatch repair-deficient, locally advanced… 

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