author={Sergey Gavrilets and Hai Li and Michael D. Vose},
  booktitle={Evolution; international journal of organic evolution},
Abstract Geographic variation may ultimately lead to the splitting of a subdivided population into reproductively isolated units in spite of migration. Here, we consider how the waiting time until the first split and its location depend on different evolutionary factors including mutation, migration, random genetic drift, genetic architecture, and the geometric structure of the habitat. We perform large-scale, individual-based simulations using a simple model of reproductive isolation based on… 

First passage time to allopatric speciation

There is an intermediate optimal rate of migration that maximizes the rate of species creation by recurrent invasion and diversification and if the number of invasive individuals relative to the resident population is not very large, diffusion approximation provides an accurate prediction.

Waiting time to parapatric speciation

  • S. Gavrilets
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2000
Using a weak migration and weak mutation approximation, the average waiting time to parapatric speciation is studied using the classical Dobzhansky model and its recently proposed multilocus generalizations.

Isolation-by-Distance and Outbreeding Depression Are Sufficient to Drive Parapatric Speciation in the Absence of Environmental Influences

A 2-D cellular automata model showing that an initially homogeneous population might spontaneously subdivide into reproductively incompatible species through sheer isolation-by-distance when the viability of offspring decreases as the genomes of parental gametes become increasingly different is proposed.

Parapatric speciation in three islands: dynamics of geographical configuration of allele sharing

The model showed that the low number of incompatibility loci facilitates parapatric speciation and that migrants arriving as a group shorten the waiting time to speciation compared with the same number of migrants arriving individually.

Diversity patterns and speciation processes in a two‐island system with continuous migration

A two-island neutral model of speciation with continuous migration is considered and diversity patterns are studied as a function of the migration probability, population size, and number of genes involved in reproductive isolation (dubbed as genome size).


It is shown that, although gene exchange does inhibit this process, it is the proportion of migrants exchanged rather than the number of migrants that is critical, and rates as high as 16 individuals exchanged per generation still permit the evolution of postzygotic isolation.


This framework can be used to approach a number of questions such as species‐area distribution, species‐range size distribution, the rate of ecological turnover, asymmetries of range division between sister species, waiting time until speciation and extinction, the relationship between the geographic range size and the probability of speciation, and the relationships between subpopulation‐level parameters and metapopulation‐ level parameters.

Waiting time to (and duration of) parapatric speciation

Using a weak migration and weak mutation approximation, I study the average waiting time to and the average duration of parapatric speciation. The description of reproductive isolation used is based

Conditions for mutation-order speciation

Simulation models used to study how gene flow, hybrid incompatibility, selective advantage, timing of origination of new mutations and an initial period of allopatric differentiation affect population divergence via the mutation-order process find that at least some population divergence can occur under a reasonably wide range of conditions, even with moderate gene flow.



A Dynamical Theory of Speciation on Holey Adaptive Landscapes

The results presented here, together with earlier numerical simulations, strongly suggest that rapid speciation, including simultaneous emergence of several new species, is a plausible outcome of the evolutionary dynamics of subdivided populations.

Genetic Divergence, Reproductive Isolation, and Marine Speciation

Such studies show how a focus on the physiology, ecology, or sensory biology of reproductive isolation can help uncover the influence of particular genetic changes on reproductive isolation for marine (or terrestrial) taxa.

Centrifugal Speciation

  • W. Brown
  • Environmental Science
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1957
INTRODUCTION M D ODERN population systematics rests on the assumption that species arise when a parent population is divided into geographical fractions, each isolated from the next by physiographic

Multilocus model of sympatric speciation. III. Computer simulations.


Lynch (1989) hypothesized that the frequency of vicariant, peripheral isolates, and sympatric speciation could be discovered by examining the relative range size and range overlap of sister taxa, either sister species or sister groups.

Geographic speciation in the Derrida-Higgs model of species formation

The Derrida-Higgs statistical model of species formation in the case where the population is geographically distributed in discrete locations, and mating only takes place within one location is considered, finding it much more likely than the sympatric speciation of the original DH model.

Gene flow and the geographic structure of natural populations.

Of particular interest are those species for which direct methods indicate little current gene flow but indirect methods indicate much higher levels of gene flow in the recent past, and whose species probably have undergone large-scale demographic changes relatively frequently.

The population genetics of speciation: the evolution of hybrid incompatibilities.

The number of genic incompatibilities between taxa increases much faster than linearly with time, and it is "easier" to evolve complex hybrid incomp atibilities requiring the simultaneous action of three or more loci than to evolve simple incompatibles between pairs of genes.

Detecting the Geographical Pattern of Speciation from Species‐Level Phylogenies

It is found that relatively recent speciation events are characterized by greater asymmetry in range size between sister clades than expected under the null models, providing potential support for the peripatric model of speciation.

Ecological Causes of Adaptive Radiation

  • D. Schluter
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    The American Naturalist
  • 1996
Evidence for ecological speciation in sticklebacks is weakest, but there are several hints of its importance: speciation was rapid and accompanied by divergence into different ecological niches; selection against hybrids is stronger in the wild than in the laboratory, which suggests that hybrid fitness depends on ecological context.