PATTERNS OF MORTALITY IN FREE-RANGING CALIFORNIA CONDORS (GYMNOGYPS CALIFORNIANUS)

@inproceedings{Rideout2012PATTERNSOM,
  title={PATTERNS OF MORTALITY IN FREE-RANGING CALIFORNIA CONDORS (GYMNOGYPS CALIFORNIANUS)},
  author={Bruce A. Rideout and Ilse H. Stalis and Rebecca E. Papendick and Allan Pessier and Birgit Puschner and Myra E. Finkelstein and Donald R. Smith and Matthew J. Johnson and Michael E. Mace and Richard K. Stroud and Joseph Brandt and Joe Burnett and Chris N. Parish and J. A. Petterson and Carmel Witte and Cynthia E. Stringfield and Kathy Orr and Jeffery R. Zuba and Michael P. Wallace and Jesse A. Grantham},
  booktitle={Journal of wildlife diseases},
  year={2012}
}
We document causes of death in free-ranging California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) from the inception of the reintroduction program in 1992 through December 2009 to identify current and historic mortality factors that might interfere with establishment of self-sustaining populations in the wild. A total of 135 deaths occurred from October 1992 (the first post-release death) through December 2009, from a maximum population-at-risk of 352 birds, for a cumulative crude mortality rate of 38… Expand
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References

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Five wild California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) that died in 1980-86 were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for environmental contaminants. Three died of lead (Pb) poisoning, 1 presumablyExpand
Junk ingestion and nestling mortality in a reintroduced population of California Condors Gymnogyps californianus
TLDR
To date, junk ingestion has been the primary cause of nest failure in the reintroduced condor population and threatens the reestablishment of a viable breeding population in southern California. Expand
Lead Hazards within the Range of the California Condor
The prevalence of lead in Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) occurring within the recent historical range of the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) was deter- mined by analyzing blood samplesExpand
Ammunition is the principal source of lead accumulated by California condors re-introduced to the wild.
TLDR
Data indicate that incidental ingestion of ammunition in carcasses of animals killed by hunters is the principal source of elevated lead exposure that threatens the recovery in the wild of this endangered species. Expand
Ammunition is the principal source of lead accumulated by California condors re-introduced to the wild.
TLDR
Data indicate that incidental ingestion of ammunition in carcasses of animals killed by hunters is the principal source of elevated lead exposure that threatens the recovery in the wild of this endangered species. Expand
ETHYLENE GLYCOL TOXICOSIS IN A CAPTIVE-BRED RELEASED CALIFORNIA CONDOR {GYMNOGYPS CALIFORNIANUS)
A male and a female California condor (Gymnogyps calif or nianus), one hatched at the Zoological Society of San Diego and the other at the Los Angeles Zoo, were released at approximately 9 mo of ageExpand
Effectiveness of Action to Reduce Exposure of Free-Ranging California Condors in Arizona and Utah to Lead from Spent Ammunition
TLDR
The effect of ending the existing lead exposure reduction measures at Kaibab Plateau, which encourage the voluntary use of non-lead ammunition and removal of gut piles of deer and elk killed using lead ammunition, was simulated to show how this program would be expected to reduce mortality caused by lead substantially and allow the condor population to increase. Expand
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TLDR
Data is summarized on nest elevations and dimensions, entrance orientations, nest longevity and re-use, vulnerability of sites to natural enemies, and use of sites by other species. Expand
Prospective immunization of the endangered California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) protects this species from lethal West Nile virus infection.
TLDR
It is shown that this vaccine is safe for condors, stimulates protective immunity in adults, nestlings, and newly hatched chicks, and most importantly, protection of captive birds exposed to naturally circulating WNV during the 2004 transmission season. Expand
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