PATHWAYS, MECHANISMS, AND RATES OF POLYPLOID FORMATION IN FLOWERING PLANTS

@article{Ramsey1998PATHWAYSMA,
  title={PATHWAYS, MECHANISMS, AND RATES OF POLYPLOID FORMATION IN FLOWERING PLANTS},
  author={Justin Ramsey and Douglas W. Schemske},
  journal={Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics},
  year={1998},
  volume={29},
  pages={467-501}
}
Polyploidy is widely acknowledged as a major mechanism of adaptation and speciation in plants. The stages in polyploid evolution include frequent fertility bottlenecks and infrequent events such as gametic nonreduction and interspecific hybridization, yet little is known about how these and other factors influence overall rates of polyploid formation. Here we review the literature regarding polyploid origins, and quantify parameter values for each of the steps involved in the principal pathways… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Paper Mentions

Polyploid incidence and evolution.
TLDR
New estimates for the incidence of polyploidy in ferns and flowering plants are presented based on a simple model describing transitions between odd and even base chromosome numbers, and it is indicated that ploidy changes may represent from 2 to 4% of speciation events in flowering plants and 7% in f Ferns. Expand
Speciation Success of Polyploid Plants Closely Relates to the Regulation of Meiotic Recombination
TLDR
The consequences ofpolyploid formation pathways, meiotic behavior and recombination regulation on the speciation success and maintenance of polyploid species are discussed. Expand
The Incidence of Polyploidy in Natural Plant Populations: Major Patterns and Evolutionary Processes
TLDR
Surprisingly, many accepted trends between polyploidy and geography, mating system, and comparative rates of species diversification have become less strong or conflicting with the development of new procedures, in particular with phylogenetic approaches. Expand
Dating the origins of polyploidy events.
TLDR
Estimating the time of origin of polyploid species is important for understanding issues such as gene loss and changes in regulation and expression among homoeologous copies that coexist in a single genome owing topolyploidy. Expand
Polyploid Speciation and Genome Evolution: Lessons from Recent Allopolyploids
TLDR
This chapter focuses on polyploids of hybrid origin (allopolyploids) in two different genera that each have experienced recent allopolyploidy (i.e., duplication of hybrid genomes) and which have been extensively studied, namely Spartina and Gossypium. Expand
Sexual polyploidization in plants – cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation
TLDR
The cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation are summarized, and important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization are outlined. Expand
Tearing down barriers: understanding the molecular mechanisms of interploidy hybridizations.
TLDR
The 'journey' of unreduced gametes to triploid intermediates to polyploid plants is illustrated and the implications for interploidy and interspecies hybridizations are discussed. Expand
Polyploid formation pathways have an impact on genetic rearrangements in resynthesized Brassica napus.
TLDR
It is concluded that polyploid formation pathways differ in their genetic outcome, and meiotic behavior of an F(1) interspecific hybrid generated more gametes with recombined chromosomes than did meiosis of the plant produced by somatic doubling, although the size of these translocations was smaller. Expand
The role of genetic and genomic attributes in the success of polyploids.
  • P. Soltis, D. Soltis
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2000
TLDR
Some of the genetic and genomic attributes of polyploids may have both biochemical and ecological benefits that contribute to the success ofpolyploid plants in nature. Expand
Chromosome Pairing in Polyploid Grasses
TLDR
The pathways leading to the formation of polyploids, the occurrence ofpolyploidy in the grass family (Poaceae), and mechanisms controlling chromosome associations during meiosis are discussed, with special emphasis on wheat. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 173 REFERENCES
Polyploidy and Novelty in Flowering Plants
  • D. Levin
  • Biology
  • The American Naturalist
  • 1983
TLDR
Evidence is presented herein from biochemical, physiological, developmental, and genetical sources which indicates that the nucleotypic effects of chromosome doubling are not necessarily negative, and indeed chromosome doubling may "propel" a population in to a new adaptive sphere, and render it capable of occupying habitats beyond the limits of its diploid progenitor. Expand
Origins of polyploids.
  • J. Dewet
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Basic life sciences
  • 1979
TLDR
Fertility is restored in polyploids through cytological diploidization of the genomes or through gametophytic apomixis, which depends on availability of suitable habitals, as well as the ability to produce successful offspring. Expand
Gametes with the somatic chromosome number: mechanisms of their formation and role in the evolution of autopolyploid plants.
TLDR
The different methods used to detect and quantify the production of 2n gametes in plants are described, which include morphological and flow cytometry screening of the occurrence of2n pollen, the analysis of crosses among diploid and tetraploid parents and the instigation of micro-and mega-sporogenesis. Expand
Molecular data and the dynamic nature of polyploidy
TLDR
Molecular data strongly suggest that recurrent formation of polyploid species is the rule, rather than the exception, and that multiple origins were found to be frequent on a local geographic scale, as well as during a short span of time. Expand
Cytogenetic analyses of autopolyploids : Models and methods for triploids to octoploids
TLDR
A prerequisite to classifying polyploids was the development of a method to determine expected pairing frequencies in autopolyploids, and there was generally good agreement between number of observed autoploid meiotic configuration and those expected in the models. Expand
Polyploidy in the Differentiation and Function of Tissues and Cells in Plants
TLDR
The most common mechanism of polyploidization acting in plant tissues and cells appears to be supernumerary chromosome reproduction, which is responsible for polysomaty in root and shoot meristems as well as forpolyploidy in any type of differentiated tissues and for nuclear growth in general. Expand
POLYPLOIDY AND DIPLOIDY: NEW PERSPECTIVES ON CHROMOSOME PAIRING AND ITS EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS
TLDR
This paper is based on a lecture presented at the symposium on "Frontiers of Plant Genetics" sponsored by the Genetics Section of the Botanical Society of America and held at Indiana University in August, 1981 and on data from various sources show that the generally held dogma that the inability of chromosomes to pair in F1 hybrids is due to considerable genetic divergence is not true. Expand
Introgression in wheat via triploid hybrids1
TLDR
It is demonstrated that additional sources of variation are present in the wheat group—which supplement the polyploid-to-polyploid gene transfer previously described—which deals with direct introgression from diploids to tetraploids via triploid bridges. Expand
A Model for the Establishment of Polyploidy in Plants
TLDR
A model for the establishment of polyploid plants in communities in which diploid ancestors predominate indicates that increasing fecundity, selfing, and niche separation between cytotypes increases the likelihood ofpolyploid invasibility. Expand
The Mechanism of 2n Pollen Formation in Diploids of Costus speciosus (Koenig) J. E. Smith and Role of Sexual Polyploidization in the Origin of Intraspecific Chromosomal Races
TLDR
The present study suggested that sexual polyploidization involving the function of 2n gametes might have played an important role in the origin of naturally occurring intraspecific chromosomal races of C. speciosus. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...