PATHOLOGY OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE OF GOPHER TORTOISES IN FLORIDA

@inproceedings{Mclaughlin2000PATHOLOGYOU,
  title={PATHOLOGY OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE OF GOPHER TORTOISES IN FLORIDA},
  author={Grace S. Mclaughlin and Elliott R. Jacobson and D. Brown and C. E. Mckenna and Isabella M. Schumacher and Henry P. Adams and Mary B. Brown and Paul A. Klein},
  booktitle={Journal of Wildlife Diseases},
  year={2000}
}
Between August 1993 and September 1995, 24 gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) were received for pathological evaluations from various locations in Florida (USA). All tortoises were examined for clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) including nasal and ocular discharge, palpebral edema, and conjunctivitis. Of the 24 tortoises, 10 had current or previously observed clinical signs of URTD and 14 did not. A blood sample was drawn for detection of anti-mycoplasma antibodies by… 

EFFECTS OF MYCOPLASMAL UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE ON MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY OF GOPHER TORTOISES IN NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA

Mycoplasmal URTD is believed to be a chronic disease with high morbidity but low mortality, and follow-up studies are needed to detect long-term effects.

Mycoplasmosis and upper respiratory tract disease of tortoises: a review and update.

Detection of Mycoplasma agassizii in the Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri)

Mycoplasma agassizii causes upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in Texas tortoises (Gopherus berlandieri) and was confirmed in one tortoise that had mild clinical signs of URTD and was positive by ELISA, PCR, and culture.

SURVEILLANCE FOR UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE AND MYCOPLASMA IN FREE-RANGING GOPHER TORTOISES (GOPHERUS POLYPHEMUS) IN GEORGIA, USA

Data indicate that both M. agassizii and M. testudineum are present in Georgia populations of gopher tortoises and that clinical disease is apparent in populations where both pathogens are present, and additional research is needed to better understand the role of these two pathogens.

Upper respiratory tract disease, force of infection, and effects on survival of gopher tortoises.

The results provide the first quantitative evidence that the rate of transmission of M. agassizii is directly related to the seroprevalence of the population and could adversely influence the population dynamics and persistence of this late- maturing, long-lived species.

EFFECTS OF MYCOPLASMAL UPPER-RESPIRATORY-TRACT DISEASE ON MOVEMENT AND THERMOREGULATORY BEHAVIOR OF GOPHER TORTOISES (GOPHERUS POLYPHEMUS) IN GEORGIA, USA

The 15-yr recapture data suggest that, despite high prevalence of M. agassizii, population density has not decreased over time, however, emigration, especially of tortoises with severe clinical disease, may play an important role in dispersal and persistence of pathogens.

Safety and utility of an anesthetic protocol for the collection of biological samples from gopher tortoises

This anesthetic protocol proved to be an effective, reliable, repeatable, and safe method to collect quality biological samples from gopher tortoises and clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease significantly influenced the time to induction and time to recovery.

INVESTIGATION OF THE TRACHEAL MUCOCILIARY CLEARANCE IN SNAKES WITH AND WITHOUT BOID INCLUSION BODY DISEASE AND LUNG PATHOLOGY

The present investigation does not reveal any signs of an inadequate mucociliary clearance in BIBD-affected snakes and the net transport speeds and directions lay well within ranges published for birds or mammals.

Seasonal Variations in Microbial Communities in the Nasal Passages of Captive Desert Tortoises

It is indicated that the nasal passages of desert tortoises contain large continuously changing communities of bacteria and suggests that further analysis of these microorganisms may be useful in assessing the health or stress of populations of desert Tortoises and the susceptibility of individual tortOises to URTD.

Distribution of Mycoplasma agassizii in a Gopher Tortoise Population in South Florida

The results of this study suggest a zero known mortality rate due to the pathogen over a 4-year period; however, additional pathological research is required to determine if Mycoplasma agassizii is causing URTD in this population.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES

Upper Respiratory Tract Disease in the Gopher Tortoise Is Caused by Mycoplasma agassizii

It is concluded that M. agassizii is an etiologic agent of URTD in the gopher tortoise and Histological lesions were compatible with those observed in tortoises with natural infections.

CHRONIC UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE OF FREE-RANGING DESERT TORTOISES (XEROBATES AGASSIZII)

While no significant differences were found for concentrations of lead, copper, cadmium, and selenium, the livers of ill tortoises had higher concentrations of mercury and iron, and Lesions were found consistently in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of ill Tortoise.

Mycoplasma agassizii causes upper respiratory tract disease in the desert tortoise

It is concluded that M. agassizii is an etiologic agent of URTD in the desert tortoise.

Detection of antibodies to a pathogenic mycoplasma in desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) with upper respiratory tract disease

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed with a monoclonal antibody with specificity for desert tortoise immunoglobulin light chain proved that the ELISA reliably diagnosed M. agassizii-induced upper respiratory tract disease in free-ranging desert tortoises.

Respiratory and Pharyngo-Esophageal Iridovirus Infection in a Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus)

On transmission electron microscopy of formalin-fixed trachea and lung, intracytoplasmic viral particles were observed within necrotic cells in the tracheal lumen and epithelial cells of the lung.

A Pasteurella sp associated with respiratory disease in captive desert tortoises.

It was hypothesized that respiratory disease in captive desert tortoises involves a commensal bacterium with the potential to be an opportunistic pathogen when the tortoise is stressed by a captive environment.

Rhinitis in long term captive Mediterranean tortoises (Testudo graeca and T hermanii)

No substantial differences in the strains of bacteria isolated from healthy individuals and from those affected by rhinitis could be found in this study, and the report that Sendai virus was implicated in the genesis ofrhinitis in tortoises could not be substantiated.

Rhinitis and virus antibody titres in chelonians

The problem of rhinitis in the two Mediterranean chelonians, Testudo graeca and T. hermanni was investigated and the incidence of significantly high titres against Sendai virus indicated that an infection with a Sendai-like virus occurs in chelonian.

Pasteurella testudinis sp. nov.: A parasite of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizi)

A bacterium isolated from desert tortoises fits the major criteria for inclusion in the genus Pasteurella (gram-negative, nonmotile, pleomorphic rods that are facultatively anaerobic, fermentative in

Siderophilic bodies associated with hemosiderosis and atypical mycobacterial infection in an island siamang (Hylobates syndactylus).

Preexisting hepatic siderosis, iron sequestration in macrophages, and compromised macrophage function due to mycobacterial infection are proposed as the basis for the abundance and size of the concretions.