Upregulation of Salmonella-Induced IL-6 Production in Caco-2 Cells by PJ-34, PARP-1 Inhibitor: Involvement of PI3K, p38 MAPK, ERK, JNK, and NF-κB
- Fu-Chen Huang
- Mediators of inflammation
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) comprise a family of enzymes which catalyse poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DNA-binding proteins. Multiple researches indicate the importance of PARP in promoting cell recruitment and thereby inducing organ injury in various forms of inflammation, such as colitis. We have evaluated the effects of two PARP inhibitors, nicotinamide and 1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline, in acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Nicotinamide (20-40 mg/kg) and 1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline (4-8 mg/kg) were administered 48, 24 and 1 h prior to the induction of colitis as well as 24 h later. 48 h after colitis induction the lesions were blindly scored and quantified as ulcer index. Histological study and colonic inflammation were assessed by gross appearance and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and, cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were also performed. Inflammation following TNBS induction was characterized by increased colonic wall thickness, oedema, diffuse inflammatory cells infiltration in the mucosa and necrosis. Furthermore, increased MPO activity, cyclooxygenase-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis were significantly augmented after TNBS instillation. On the contrary, treatment with 1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline significantly reduced the degree of colon injury and also caused a substantial reduction in the rise in MPO activity, in the increase of staining for cyclooxygenase-2, as well as in the up-regulation of PGE2 caused by TNBS in the colon. Although nicotinamide significantly did not reduce macroscopic damage, it decreased both MPO activity and PGE2 colonic levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PARP inhibition can exert beneficial effects in experimental colitis and may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.