The inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) via phosphorylation by Akt or protein kinase C (PKC), or the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades can play a pivotal role in left ventricular remodeling following myocardial infarction. Our previous data showed that MAPK and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathways could be modulated by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibition raising the possibility that cardiac hypertrophic signaling responses may be favorably influenced by PARP inhibitors. A novel PARP inhibitor (L-2286) was tested in a rat model of chronic heart failure following isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Subsequently, cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial collagen deposition were assessed; additionally, mitochondrial enzyme activity and the phosphorylation state of GSK-3beta, Akt, PKC and MAPK cascades were monitored. PARP inhibitor (L-2286) treatment significantly reduced the progression of postinfarction heart failure attenuating cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis, and preserving the integrity of respiratory complexes. More importantly, L-2286 repressed the hypertrophy-associated increased phosphorylation of panPKC, PKC alpha/betaII, PKC delta and PKC epsilon, which could be responsible for the activation of the antihypertrophic GSK-3beta. This work provides the first evidence that PARP inhibition beneficially modulates the PKC/GSK-3beta intracellular signaling pathway in a rat model of chronic heart failure identifying a novel drug target to treat heart failure.