The proto-oncoprotein c-Myc functions as a transcriptional regulator that controls different aspects of cell behavior, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, Myc proteins have the potential to transform cells and are deregulated in the majority of human cancers. Several Myc-interacting factors have been described that mediate part of Myc's functions in the control of cell behavior. Here, we describe the isolation of a novel 150 kDa protein, designated PARP-10, that interacts with Myc. PARP-10 possesses domains with homology to RNA recognition motifs and to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP). Molecular modeling and biochemical analysis define a PARP domain that is capable of ADP-ribosylating PARP-10 itself and core histones, but neither Myc nor Max. PARP-10 is localized to the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments that is controlled at least in part by a Leu-rich nuclear export sequence (NES). Functionally, PARP-10 inhibits c-Myc- and E1A-mediated cotransformation of rat embryo fibroblasts, a function that is independent of PARP activity but that depends on a functional NES. Together, our findings define a novel PARP enzyme involved in the control of cell proliferation.