PACAP Functions as a Neurotrophic Factor a

@article{Arimura1994PACAPFA,
  title={PACAP Functions as a Neurotrophic Factor a},
  author={Akira Arimura and Arpad F. Somogyvari and Cheryl L. Weill and R. C. Fiore and Ichiro Tatsuno and Virginia Bay and Douglas E Brenneman},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={1994},
  volume={739}
}
In addition to classical neurotrophic factors, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides also exhibit neurotrophic activities.' The central nervous system (CNS) contains a variety of neuropeptides in neurons and nonneuronal cells. These peptides and their receptors appear in early developmental stages, often transiently expressed at a peak level, suggesting a possible physiological role as modulators of growth and differentiation of neurons. Neurotrophic actions of a number of neuropeptides have been… 

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase‐Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Is a Neurotrophic Factor for Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons

TLDR
Although PACAP shows a 68% amino acid sequence homology with VIP, it is 100010,000 times more potent than VIP in stimulating adenylate cyclase in the rat neuron and astrocyte, so this work is interested in whether PACAP has a neurotrophic effect similar to or more powerful than VIP.

Structure and functions of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) as a neurotrophic factor

TLDR
In the adult brain, PACAP appears to function as a neuroprotective factor that attenuates the neuronal damages resulting from various insults like focal ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), suggesting that PACAP may be a promising therapeutic agent in brain attack.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Releases Interleukin‐1 from Astrocytes

TLDR
In the sympathetic nervous system, VIP is thought to have direct action to increase neuroblast proliferation, differentiation, and neuronal survival, by contrast, the survival-promoting action in the spinal cord is mediated indirectly through other substances released from VIP-stimulated a~troglia.

Neuroprotective roles of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in neurodegenerative diseases

TLDR
The current findings on the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of PACAP in different brain injury models, such as cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are summarized to provide information for the future development of therapeutic strategies in treatment of these neurodegenerative diseases.

Multiple Actions of Pituitary Adenylyl Cyclase Activating Peptide in Nervous System Development and Regeneration

TLDR
In vivo models now provide additional evidence that PACAP acts in neural development and regeneration.

Developmental Regulation of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and Its Receptor 1 in Rat Brain: Function of PACAP as a Neurotrophic Factor a

TLDR
Experimental results that indicate the presence of PACAP and its receptor in the developing nervous system, together with the observed neuropeptide activity on various populations of neurons, support the view that PACAP exhibits important neurotrophic activities comparable to those of the classical neurotrophic factors.

VIP Neurotrophism in the Central Nervous System: Multiple Effectors and Identification of a Femtomolar‐Acting Neuroprotective Peptide

TLDR
These studies support the conclusion that VIP, PACAP, and associated molecules are both important regulators of neurodevelopment and strong candidates for therapeutic development for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

Pleiotropic Functions of PACAP in the CNS

TLDR
The results suggest that PACAP itself and PACAP‐stimulated secretion of IL‐6 synergistically inhibit apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, strongly suggesting thatPACAP plays very important roles in neuroprotection in adult brain as well as astrocyte differentiation during development.
...

References

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TLDR
The dual action of VIP may regulate glial‐derived trophic substances that are important for neuronal survival during the course of development.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide increase cytosolic free calcium concentration in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

TLDR
This study investigated the effects of PACAP38 on cytosolic-free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and compared these effects with those of VIP in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and found that PACAP is likely to act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator as well.

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TLDR
Under conditions of electrical blockade a neurotrophic action of VIP on neuronal survival can be demonstrated, and two closely related peptides were found not to increase the number of neurons in TTX-treated cultures.

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TLDR
It is shown that antisera, which blocked the T‐cell proliferative effects of interleukin‐1α, decreased neuronal cell counts in dissociated spinal cord cultures derived from fetal mice and can increase neuronal survival.

Secretin and vasoactive intestinal peptide acutely increase tyrosine 3-monooxygenase in the rat superior cervical ganglion.

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TLDR
The data demonstrate that secretin and VIP acutely increase TyrOHase activity in the superior cervical ganglion and suggest that they produce this effect by acting directly on ganglionic neurons.

Characterization and distribution of binding sites for the hypothalamic peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide.

TLDR
Results suggest that 1) a saturable, high affinity binding site for PACAP is present on anterior pituitary membranes; 2) PACAP27 and PACAP38, but not VIP, share this binding site in the anterior pituitsary and possibly the hypothalamus; and 3)PACAP27, PACAP 38, and VIP share a similar or identical binding site on lung membranes and possibly other peripheral tissues.
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