PACAP Functions as a Neurotrophic Factor a

@article{Arimura1994PACAPFA,
  title={PACAP Functions as a Neurotrophic Factor a},
  author={Akira Arimura and Arpad F. Somogyvari and Cheryl L. Weill and R. C. Fiore and Ichiro Tatsuno and Virginia Bay and Douglas E Brenneman},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={1994},
  volume={739}
}
In addition to classical neurotrophic factors, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides also exhibit neurotrophic activities.' The central nervous system (CNS) contains a variety of neuropeptides in neurons and nonneuronal cells. These peptides and their receptors appear in early developmental stages, often transiently expressed at a peak level, suggesting a possible physiological role as modulators of growth and differentiation of neurons. Neurotrophic actions of a number of neuropeptides have been… Expand
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase‐Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Is a Neurotrophic Factor for Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons
TLDR
Although PACAP shows a 68% amino acid sequence homology with VIP, it is 100010,000 times more potent than VIP in stimulating adenylate cyclase in the rat neuron and astrocyte, so this work is interested in whether PACAP has a neurotrophic effect similar to or more powerful than VIP. Expand
Structure and functions of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) as a neurotrophic factor
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that was first isolated from ovine hypothalamus extracts on the basis of its ability to increase cyclic AMP in culturedExpand
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Releases Interleukin‐1 from Astrocytes
TLDR
In the sympathetic nervous system, VIP is thought to have direct action to increase neuroblast proliferation, differentiation, and neuronal survival, by contrast, the survival-promoting action in the spinal cord is mediated indirectly through other substances released from VIP-stimulated a~troglia. Expand
Neuroprotective roles of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in neurodegenerative diseases
TLDR
The current findings on the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of PACAP in different brain injury models, such as cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are summarized to provide information for the future development of therapeutic strategies in treatment of these neurodegenerative diseases. Expand
PACAP promotes sensory neuron differentiation: blockade by neurotrophic factors
TLDR
It is demonstrated that PACAP promotes the differentiation of nascent dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in that it increases both the number of neural-marker-positive cells and axonogenesis without affecting the proliferation of neural progenitor cells. Expand
Multiple Actions of Pituitary Adenylyl Cyclase Activating Peptide in Nervous System Development and Regeneration
  • J. Waschek
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • 2002
TLDR
In vivo models now provide additional evidence that PACAP acts in neural development and regeneration. Expand
Developmental Regulation of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and Its Receptor 1 in Rat Brain: Function of PACAP as a Neurotrophic Factor a
TLDR
Experimental results that indicate the presence of PACAP and its receptor in the developing nervous system, together with the observed neuropeptide activity on various populations of neurons, support the view that PACAP exhibits important neurotrophic activities comparable to those of the classical neurotrophic factors. Expand
Convergent phosphomodulation of the major neuronal dendritic potassium channel Kv4.2 by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide
TLDR
A novel GPCR-channel signaling crosstalk between PACAP/PAC1 and Kv4.2 channel in a manner that could lead to neuronal hyperexcitability is suggested, suggesting a convergent phosphomodulatory signaling cascade. Expand
VIP Neurotrophism in the Central Nervous System: Multiple Effectors and Identification of a Femtomolar‐Acting Neuroprotective Peptide
TLDR
These studies support the conclusion that VIP, PACAP, and associated molecules are both important regulators of neurodevelopment and strong candidates for therapeutic development for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Expand
Pleiotropic Functions of PACAP in the CNS
TLDR
The results suggest that PACAP itself and PACAP‐stimulated secretion of IL‐6 synergistically inhibit apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, strongly suggesting thatPACAP plays very important roles in neuroprotection in adult brain as well as astrocyte differentiation during development. Expand
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References

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The dual action of VIP may regulate glial‐derived trophic substances that are important for neuronal survival during the course of development. Expand
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide increase cytosolic free calcium concentration in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.
TLDR
This study investigated the effects of PACAP38 on cytosolic-free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and compared these effects with those of VIP in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and found that PACAP is likely to act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator as well. Expand
Neurotrophic action of VIP on spinal cord cultures
TLDR
Vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunofluorescence was observed in 3-5% of the neurons in 4 week old dissociated cultures from fetal mouse spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion, suggesting that VIP influences cholinergic neurons. Expand
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP): discovery and current status of research
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TLDR
Immunohistochemical study indicated that PACAP containing neural fibers are present throughout the brain, including both internal and external zones of the median eminence, in the hypothalamus and the supraoptic nucleus in various species. Expand
Vasoactive intestinal peptide and electrical activity influence neuronal survival.
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TLDR
Under conditions of electrical blockade a neurotrophic action of VIP on neuronal survival can be demonstrated, and two closely related peptides were found not to increase the number of neurons in TTX-treated cultures. Expand
Cytokine Regulation of Neuronal Survival
TLDR
It is shown that antisera, which blocked the T‐cell proliferative effects of interleukin‐1α, decreased neuronal cell counts in dissociated spinal cord cultures derived from fetal mice and can increase neuronal survival. Expand
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TLDR
The data demonstrate that secretin and VIP acutely increase TyrOHase activity in the superior cervical ganglion and suggest that they produce this effect by acting directly on ganglionic neurons. Expand
Characterization and distribution of binding sites for the hypothalamic peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide.
TLDR
Results suggest that 1) a saturable, high affinity binding site for PACAP is present on anterior pituitary membranes; 2) PACAP27 and PACAP38, but not VIP, share this binding site in the anterior pituitsary and possibly the hypothalamus; and 3)PACAP27, PACAP 38, and VIP share a similar or identical binding site on lung membranes and possibly other peripheral tissues. Expand
Isolation of a neuropeptide corresponding to the N-terminal 27 residues of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide with 38 residues (PACAP38).
TLDR
Synthetic PACAP27 which shows a considerable homology with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) demonstrated a similar vasodepressor activity as VIP, but the adenylate cyclase stimulating activity was about 1000 times greater than VIP. Expand
Receptors for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide Comparison with vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors
  • A. Arimura
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism
  • 1992
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a new member of the secretin glucagon-vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family of peptides, being most homologous to VIP. PACAP existsExpand
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