PACAP—A Multifacetted Neuropeptide

@article{Fahrenkrug2006PACAPAMN,
  title={PACAP—A Multifacetted Neuropeptide},
  author={Jan Fahrenkrug},
  journal={Chronobiology International},
  year={2006},
  volume={23},
  pages={53 - 61}
}
  • J. Fahrenkrug
  • Published 1 January 2006
  • Biology
  • Chronobiology International
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) was originally isolated from ovine hypothalamus based on its ability to stimulate cAMP production in pituitary cell cultures. The peptide exists in two forms, both of which are derived from the same precursor. PACAP38 and the C‐terminal truncated PACAP27 can interact with three subtypes of receptors activating adenylate cyclase and/or phospholipase C. Since its discovery, numerous studies have provided evidence that PACAP is a… 
Grass carp somatolactin: II. Pharmacological study on postreceptor signaling mechanisms for PACAP-induced somatolactin-alpha and -beta gene expression.
TLDR
Evidence is provided for the first time that PACAP can induce SLalpha and SLbeta gene expression in fish model via PAC-I receptors through differential coupling to overlapping and yet distinct signaling pathways.
Grass carp somatolactin: I. Evidence for PACAP induction of somatolactin-alpha and -beta gene expression via activation of pituitary PAC-I receptors.
TLDR
It is suggested that PACAP may serve as a hypophysiotropic factor in fish stimulating SL secretion and synthesis at the pituitary level through activation of PAC-I receptors.
Mechanisms for PACAP-induced prolactin gene expression in grass carp pituitary cells.
TLDR
Evidence is provided for the first time that PACAP activation of PAC1 receptor expressed in carp lactotrophs could induce Prl synthesis and secretion and Prl production induced by PACAP was mediated by upregulation of prl gene expression, presumably via functional coupling of cAMP/PKA-, Ca2+/CaM-, and MAPK-dependent cascades.
VIP and PACAP: recent insights into their functions/roles in physiology and disease from molecular and genetic studies
TLDR
PACAP/VIP as well as their three classes of receptors are important in many physiological/pathophysiological processes, some of which are identified in these studies using knockout animals, which may lead to new novel treatment approaches.
Effects of PACAP on the Circadian Changes of Signaling Pathways in Chicken Pinealocytes
TLDR
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide modulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and the appearance of 14-3-3 protein in the chicken pineal cells, but these effects were dose dependent and also depended on the time of day.
Grass carp somatolactin : II . Pharmacological study on postreceptor signaling mechanisms for PACAP-induced somatolactin-and-gene expression
TLDR
Evidence is provided for the first time that PACAP can induce SL and SL gene expression in fish model via PAC-I receptors through differential coupling to overlapping and yet distinct signaling pathways.
Grass carp somatolactin : I . Evidence for PACAP induction of somatolactin-and-gene expression via activation of pituitary PACI receptors
TLDR
It is suggested that PACAP may serve as a hypophysiotropic factor in fish stimulating SL secretion and synthesis at the pituitary level and upregulation of SL and SL gene expression through activation of PAC-I receptors.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 29 REFERENCES
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
TLDR
The bronchodilatator and vasorelaxant effects of PACAP, as well as the antiproliferative and neuroprotective actions of the peptide, make it a valuable target for new drug development.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and its receptors: from structure to functions.
TLDR
The current knowledge concerning the multiple actions of PACAP in the central nervous system and in various peripheral organs including the endocrine glands, the airways, and the cardiovascular and immune systems are reviewed, as well as the different effects ofPACAP on a number of tumor cell types.
Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide: a pivotal modulator of glutamatergic regulation of the suprachiasmatic circadian clock.
TLDR
The results reveal that PACAP is a significant component of the Glu-mediated light-entrainment pathway and may encode the amplitude of adaptive circadian behavioral responses to the natural range of intensities of nocturnal light.
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP) in the Retinohypothalamic Tract: A Potential Daytime Regulator of the Biological Clock
TLDR
A new signaling pathway by which the RHT may regulate circadian timing in the daytime as well, through a cAMP-dependent pathway, which could be blocked by a specific cAMP antagonist, Rp-cAMPS.
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Is an Auto/Paracrine Stimulator of Acute Progesterone Accumulation and Subsequent Luteinization in Cultured Periovulatory Granulosa/Lutein Cells.
TLDR
An in vitro system in which the potential local regulatory role of PACAP during periovulatory progesterone production could be examined was examined and granulosa/lutein cells were found to accumulate and secretePACAP during incubation.
Transient periovulatory expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide in rat ovarian cells.
TLDR
The complex distribution of PACAP positive cells and nerve fibers suggests that the peptide could be a local regulator of a number of the events that take place in the periovulatory period as well as during early folliculogenesis in the ovary.
PACAP in the Urogenital Tract
TLDR
Although there is still a long way to go before the role of PACAP in the urogenital tract is clarified a number of studies have clearly demonstrated that PACAP could be a sensory and efferent neurotransmitter as well as having autocrine/paracrine functions.
Progesterone receptor activation mediates LH-induced type-I pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor (PAC(1)) gene expression in rat granulosa cells.
  • C. Ko, O. Park-Sarge
  • Biology, Medicine
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • 2000
TLDR
Results suggest that PR activation regulates the finely tuned expression of the PACAP/PACAP receptor genes in luteinizing granulosa cells and thus dictates the timing of the autocrine and/or paracrine function of PACAP in preovulatory follicles.
Expression of VIP and/or PACAP receptor mRNA in peptide synthesizing cells within the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat and in its efferent target sites
TLDR
The presence of VPAC2 mRNA in nearly half the VIP neurons, in almost all the AVP neurons, and at sites receiving VIP‐immunoreactive SCN efferents suggests that the SCN VIP neurons are coupled and/or autoregulated and also influence the A VP‐containing dorsomedial SCN and distal sites viaVPAC2.
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