Novel Strategies for Immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma: Previous Experience and Future Directions
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), successfully adopted in the treatment of several haematological malignancies, have proved almost ineffective in multiple myeloma (MM), because of the lack of an appropriate antigen for targeting and killing MM cells. Here, we demonstrate that PSGL1, the major ligand of P-Selectin, a marker of plasmacytic differentiation expressed at high levels on normal and neoplastic plasma cells, may represent a novel target for mAb-mediated MM immunotherapy. The primary effectors of mAb-induced cell-death, complement-mediated lysis (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), were investigated using U266B1 and LP1 cell-lines as models. Along with immunological mechanisms, the induction of apoptosis by PSGL1 cross-linking was assessed. The anti-PSGL1 murine mAb KPL1 induced death of MM cells in a dose- and time-dependent fashion and mediated a significant amount of ADCC. KPL1 alone mediated C1q deposition on target cells but proved unable to induce CDC due to inhibition of the lytic activity of complement by membrane complement regulators (mCRP) expressed on the cell surface. Consistently, CDC was induced by KPL1 upon mCRP blockage. Our results suggest a role for PSGL1 in MM humoral immunotherapy and support further in vivo studies assessing the effects of anti-PSGL1 mAbs on MM growth and interaction with the bone marrow microenvironment.