P-N-P-N Transistor Switches

  title={P-N-P-N Transistor Switches},
  author={J. Moll and Morris Tanenbaum and James M. Goldey and Nick Holonyak},
  journal={Proceedings of the IRE},
The design, fabrication, and electrical characteristics of silicon p-n-p-n transistors with α>1 for use as switches is discussed. The increase of alpha with injection level can be used to construct two terminal p-n-p-n switches. The high impedance characteristic has an impedance determined chiefly by the capacitance of the junctions. This capacity is of the order of tens of micromicrofarads. The low impedance portion of the switching characteristics has a slope resistance of a few ohms and a… 

Multiterminal P-N-P-N Switches

A silicon p-n-p-n switch (two or three terminal) whose operation depends in part upon electric field transport of minority carriers is described. In a p-n-p-n structure relying upon an electric field

The Electrical Characteristics of Silicon P-N-P-N Triodes

An investigation is made of the electrical characteristics of three-terminal silicon p-n-p-n structures, where electrical contact is made to both outer (emitter) regions and to one of the inner

Three-terminal P-N-P-N transistor switches

An investigation of the electrical properties of four-region silicon structures, with electrical contact made to both outer regions and to one of the inner base regions is described briefly. A

Current Gain in p-n-p-n Silicon Controlled Rectifiers†

ABSTRACT The switching conditions of a p-n-p-n triode are normally determined by considering the relation between the effective values of current gain ∝1 and ∝2 of the p-n-p and n-p-ii transistors to

Switching mechanism in the n-p-n-p silicon controlled rectifier

The OFF state current-voltage characteristics of a two-terminal n-p-n-p silicon controlled rectifier are predicted by considering one-dimensional diffusion of minority carriers in the bulk regions

p-n-p-n Switching Diodes

SUMMARY The paper describes silicon diodes of p-n-p-n structure which exhibit rapid switching from a high-resistance to a low-resistance state, similar to that described recently by Moll et al. Two

Linear operation of a p-n-p-n tetrode

At the present time all p-n-p-n devices are used exclusively as switches. The p-n-p-n tetrode however, is also capable of operating as a linear amplifier. A model describing the operation of such a

Bidirectional triode P-N-P-N switches

The theory of operation, construction, and electrical characteristics of a new family of silicon thyristors for use as bidirectional (ac) switches are discussed. With these p-n-p-n devices, load

P-N-Π-N Triode Switching Applications

The characteristics and switching applications of a developmental diffused silicon p-n-π-n triode are discussed and experimental data covering current handling capabilities, frequency limitations and switching times are presented in conjunction with representative circuits.

Turn-on Transient of p-n-p-n Triode †

The turn-on transient of the p-n-p-n switch is analysed with simplifying assumptions. Experiments on the silicon p-n-p-n power triode show that the two mechanisms determine the current waveform



The theory of p-n junctions in semiconductors and p-n junction transistors

The theory of potential distribution and rectification for p-n junctions is developed with emphasis on germanium, resulting in an admittance for a simple case varying as (1 + iωτ p )1/2 where τ p is the lifetime of a hole in the n-region.

Large-Signal Behavior of Junction Transistors

In the consideration of the junction transistor as a switch there are three characteristics of primary interest, the open impedance, the closed impedance, and the switching-time. A generalized

Diffused emitter and base silicon transistors

Silicon n-p-n transistors have been made in which the base and emitter regions were produced by diffusing impurities from the vapor phase. Transistors with base layers 3.8 × 10−4-cm thick have been

Transistors in Switching Circuits

The general transistor properties of small size and weight, low power and voltage, and potential long life suggest extensive application of transistors to pulse- or switching-type systems of computer

Lifetime of Electrons in p-Type Silicon

The dependence of lifetime of electrons on temperature in $p$-type silicon can be explained on the basis of the Shockley-Read-Hall theory by assuming a level for the recombination centers at 0.2 ev

Cold cathode tubes for transmission of audio frequency signals

Cold cathode gas filled tubes have been extensively applied as electronic switching elements in the telephone system. In general, these applications have been limited to control circuits. The

Statistics of the Recombinations of Holes and Electrons

The statistics of the recombination of holes and electrons in semiconductors is analyzed on the basis of a model in which the recombination occurs through the mechanism of trapping. A trap is assumed

Avalanche Breakdown Voltage in Silicon Diffused p‐n Junctions as a Function of Impurity Gradient

A method is presented for controlling the reverse breakdown voltage (VB) in a silicon graded junction. The significant process parameters are shown to be resistivity, time of diffusion, and

p − n Junction Transistors

The effects of diffusion of electrons through a thin p -type layer of germanium have been studied in specimens consisting of two n -type regions with the p -type region interposed. It is found that