Oxygen radicals and the nervous system

  title={Oxygen radicals and the nervous system},
  author={Barry Halliwell and John M. C. Gutteridge},
  journal={Trends in Neurosciences},
An endogenous source of the superoxide anion in the central nervous system.
While it is known that oxygen intermediates, i.e., the superoxide radical anion, hydrogen peroxide, and the hydroxyl radical are toxic1–3, their role in pathological processes in the central nervous
Formation of Excess Reactive Oxygen Species within the Brain
The terms free radicals or oxygen radicals have become commonly used in the past decade as a result of overwhelming data suggesting that oxygen radicals are involved in a variety of disease
Free radical mechanisms in the central nervous system: an overview.
  • J. Cadet
  • Psychology
    The International journal of neuroscience
  • 1988
An overview of the nature of free radicals is provided and briefly their participation in the toxicity associated with catecholamines in the CNS is discussed.
Oxygen radicals: common mediators of neurotoxicity.
Oxygen radicals and human disease.
Attention is focused on cigarette smoke oxidants, ischemia-reperfusion-induced radical production, carcinogenesis, and aging, which may well provide a firm foundation for therapeutic breakthroughs in oxy-radical research.
Free radicals in central nervous system ischemia.
Free radicals have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases and in the toxic and therapeutic effects of antineoplastic drugs and radiation, the deleterious consequences of environmental
Reactive Oxygen Species and the Central Nervous System
The nature of antioxidants is discussed, it being suggested that antioxidant enzymes and chelators of transition metal ions may be more generally useful protective agents than chain‐breaking antioxidants.
Oxygen radicals as key mediators in neurological disease: Fact or fiction?
Criteria for establishing free radicals involvement in the pathology of several neurological disorders are presented and development of new methods for measuring oxidative damage should enable elucidation of the precise role of reactive oxygen species in neurological disorders.
Increased Cerebral Free Radical Production During Thiamine Deficiency
Findings suggest that increased formation of free radicals occurs during the more acute symptomatic stage of thiamine deficiency and may contribute to the structural damage described in this model of Wernicke's encephalopathy.


Superoxide radical: an endogenous toxicant.
  • I. Fridovich
  • Biology
    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
  • 1983
The Two Faces of Oxygen Molecular oxygen is both benign and malign and the superoxide dismutases, by catalytically scavenging 0;, provide a defense against it and against any reactive radical species which can be derived from it.
Catecholamine toxicity : a proposal for the molecular pathogenesis of manganese neurotoxicity and Parkinson's disease
: An hypothesis is presented which attempts to relate the pathogenesis of both manganese neurotoxicity and Parkinson's disease to cytotoxicity from products of catecholamine oxidation. These include
Normobaric oxygen toxicity of the lung.
Hyperbaric oxygen accelerates the effects of oxygen toxicity and also damages the central nervous system, probably because of the high partial pressure of inspired oxygen.
The Functional Significance of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Synaptosomes: Protection Against Peroxidative Damage by Catecholamines and Oxidants
Abstract: Catecholamines added in vitro in rat brain synaptosomes activate the decarboxylation of glucose radioactively labelled on carbon 1, suggesting an effective activation of the pentose
The toxicology of molecular oxygen.
This work considers the threat posed by oxygen and the defenses which make aerobic life possible and the compounds which increase the conversion of oxygen to its more reactive derivatives.
Oxygen, oxidases, and the essential trace metals.
  • H. Hill
  • Chemistry
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1981
It is suggested that the uncontrolled reaction of dioxygen with reduced species, to give the superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and perhaps other entities derived from these, is potentially hazardous to the organism.
Inhibition of the iron-catalysed formation of hydroxyl radicals from superoxide and of lipid peroxidation by desferrioxamine.
The iron chelator desferrioxamine inhibits peroxidation at all concentrations tested, and it also inhibits the iron-catalysed formation of hydroxyl radicals from superoxide (O2-.).
Comparison of superoxide with other reducing agents in the biological production of hydroxyl radicals.
Iron--EDTA was shown to catalyse OH production from H2O2 and ascorbate by a mechanism largely independent of superoxide, and would appear to be more significant biologically.