Oxygen isotope in archaeological bioapatites from India: Implications to climate change and decline of Bronze Age Harappan civilization

@article{Sarkar2016OxygenII,
  title={Oxygen isotope in archaeological bioapatites from India: Implications to climate change and decline of Bronze Age Harappan civilization},
  author={Anindya Sarkar and Arati Deshpande Mukherjee and Melinda Kumar Bera and Bhagaban Das and Navin Juyal and P. Morthekai and R.D. Deshpande and V. Shinde and L. S. Rao},
  journal={Scientific Reports},
  year={2016},
  volume={6}
}
The antiquity and decline of the Bronze Age Harappan civilization in the Indus-Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys is an enigma in archaeology. Weakening of the monsoon after ~5 ka BP (and droughts throughout the Asia) is a strong contender for the Harappan collapse, although controversy exists about the synchroneity of climate change and collapse of civilization. One reason for this controversy is lack of a continuous record of cultural levels and palaeomonsoon change in close proximity. We report a… 
Did the Harappan settlement of Dholavira (India) collapse during the onset of Meghalayan stage drought?
Radiocarbon dating of archaeological carbonates from seven cultural stages of Dholavira, Great Rann of Kachchh (GRK), the largest excavated Harappan settlement in India, suggests the beginning of
On the existence of a perennial river in the Harappan heartland
TLDR
It is established that during 80-20 ka and 9-4.5 ka the Ghaggar was perennial and was receiving sediments from the Higher and Lesser Himalayas, and the timing of the eventual decline of the river approximately coincides with the commencement of the Meghalayan Stage.
Larger floods of Himalayan foothill rivers sustained flows in the Ghaggar–Hakra channel during Harappan age
The human–landform interaction in the region of the Ghaggar–Hakra palaeochannel in the northwest Indo‐Gangetic plains during the Bronze Age Indus/Harappan civilisation (~4.6–3.9 thousand years before
Altered cropping pattern and cultural continuation with declined prosperity following abrupt and extreme arid event at ~4,200 yrs BP: Evidence from an Indus archaeological site Khirsara, Gujarat, western India
TLDR
A significant change in crop-pattern at ~4,200 yrs BP is shown, based on abundant macrobotanical remains and C isotopes of soil organic matter in an archaeological site at Khirsara, in the Gujarat state of western India, which appears to be intentional and was likely used as an adaptation measure in response to deteriorated monsoonal conditions.
Climate variability and evolution of the Indus civilization
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