Oxygen, animals and oceanic ventilation: an alternative view

@article{Butterfield2009OxygenAA,
  title={Oxygen, animals and oceanic ventilation: an alternative view},
  author={Nicholas J. Butterfield},
  journal={Geobiology},
  year={2009},
  volume={7}
}
  • N. Butterfield
  • Published 1 January 2009
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • Geobiology
Of all the components of biogeochemical cycles, few attract more attention than the waste product of oxygenic photosynthesis. Chemically unstable and biosynthetically dangerous, diatomic oxygen is the key ingredient in aerobic metabolism, and a prerequisite for the evolution of large complex organisms that define the modern biosphere. Exactly how much they require is only loosely constrained, but Catling et al . (2005) suggest something in the order of 10 3 –10 4 pascals [Pa] ( ≈ 1–10… 

Oxygen, animals and aquatic bioturbation: An updated account

‘permissive environment’ causality provides an intuitively satisfying explanation for the delayed arrival of Phanerozoic-style ecosystems, and is supported empirically by geochemical evidence for the expanding oxygenation of mid-late Neoproterozoic oceans.

Oxygen requirements for the Cambrian explosion

The appearance sequence of different animals is broadly consistent with their hypoxic sensitivity: animals like molluscs and annelids that are less sensitive to hypoxia appeared earlier, while animals like echinoderms and fishes that are more sensitive toHypoxic tolerance experiments may be helpful to constrain the oxygen requirement for animal evolution.

The Ecological Physiology of Earth's Second Oxygen Revolution

Although Cambrian oxygen must have reached 10–20% of modern levels, sufficient to support the animal diversity recorded by fossils, it may not have been much higher than this and today's levels may have been approached only later in the Paleozoic Era.

On the co‐evolution of surface oxygen levels and animals

Views from across this interpretive spectrum are presented—in a point–counterpoint format—regarding crucial aspects of the potential links between animals and surface oxygen levels to disentangle the relationships between oxygen availability and emergence and diversification of animal life.

Life in Changing Fluids: A Critical Appraisal of Swimming Animals Before the Cambrian.

  • D. Gold
  • Geography
    Integrative and comparative biology
  • 2018
It is concluded that there are very few groups of planktotrophic swimming animals that were likely to have existed at this time, with the possible exception of medusozoan cnidarians (jellyfish).

Mid-Proterozoic redox evolution and the possibility of transient oxygenation events.

While prevailing conditions during much of this time would likely have presented challenges for early animals, there were intervals when oxygenated conditions were more widespread and could have favored yet undetermined advances in eukaryotic innovation, including critical early steps toward animal evolution.

Low Mid-Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels and the delayed rise of animals

Evidence for inhibited oxidation of Cr at Earth’s surface in the mid-Proterozoic is found, suggesting that atmospheric O2 levels were at most 0.1% of present atmospheric levels.

A theory of atmospheric oxygen

It is shown that the Snowball Earth glaciations, which immediately precede both transitions, provide an appropriate transient increase in atmospheric oxygen to drive the atmosphere either from its Archean state to its Proterozoic state, or from its Protersic state toIts Phanerozoic state.

Low-oxygen waters limited habitable space for early animals

Anomalous cerium enrichments preserved in carbonate rocks across bathymetric basin transects from nine localities of the Nama Group, Namibia suggest that low-oxygen conditions occurred in a narrow zone between well- oxygengenated surface waters and fully anoxic deep waters, demonstrating that oxygen availability was a key requirement for the development of early animal-based ecosystems.
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