Oxidized low-density lipoprotein inhibits acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation and increases 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction in isolated human saphenous vein.
Experiments were designed to examine the effect of oxidized low density lipoproteins (Ox-LDLs) on the expression and the release of endothelin from cultured endothelial cells and intact blood vessels. Ox-LDLs (30-300 micrograms/ml), but not native low density lipoproteins (200 micrograms/ml), stimulated the expression of preproendothelin mRNA in porcine and human endothelial cells, leading to a time- and concentration-dependent release of the peptide into the culture medium. The Ox-LDL-stimulated release of endothelin was mimicked by acetylated low density lipoprotein and abolished by downregulation of protein kinase C by phorbol ester. In the intact porcine aorta, Ox-LDLs, but not native low density lipoproteins, also increased the release of peptide in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner. The maximal effect was observed at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml. Incubation of the intact porcine aorta with the scavenger receptor antagonist dextran sulfate decreased the formation of endothelium evoked by Ox-LDLs. The Ox-LDL-stimulated production of the peptide was further augmented in the presence of thrombin (4 units/ml) and was unaffected by nitric oxide-generating compound 3-morpholinosydnonimine (10(-5) M). These results suggest that Ox-LDL may be an endogenous mediator of the augmented release of endothelin observed in hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The increased production of the peptide could contribute to vasospastic events and may promote vascular smooth muscle proliferation and progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease.