In vivo distribution of single chain variable fragment (scFv) against atherothrombotic oxidized LDL/β2-glycoprotein I complexes into atherosclerotic plaques of WHHL rabbits: Implication for clinical PET imaging.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a high incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular complications that result from chronic metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The oxidative-modification of low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) and oxLDL/beta(2)-GPI complex formation have been reported in patients with autoimmune disorders. OxLDL/beta(2)-GPI complexes and autoantibodies to these complexes were measured by ELISA in serum samples from 50 type 2 DM patients and 50 age/sex-matched healthy controls. Mean OD for oxLDL/beta(2)-GPI complexes in DM was 0.099 +/- 0.065 with 50% of patients reacting above the assay cutoff (P < 0.001 vs. controls). Mean OD for controls was 0.037 +/- 0.015 with 2% positives. Thirty-six (72%) DM patients were taking cholesterol-lowering statins and had a significantly lower mean OD complex level (0.092 +/- 0.071, P = 0.05) compared to patients not taking statins (0.112 +/- 0.05). Mean OD for IgG anti-oxLDL/beta(2)-GPI antibodies in DM was 0.157 +/- 0.112, similar to the controls (0.146 +/- 0.098, P = 0.328). Increased serum levels of oxLDL/beta(2)-GPI complexes may be a consequence of oxidative stress and LDL modification in DM. Lower levels of oxLDL/beta(2)GPI complexes in DM patients taking statins are in agreement with the antioxidant and antithrombotic properties of these drugs. No significant IgG autoantibody production was observed in this group of DM patients. The interaction of oxLDL with beta(2)-GPI in circulation suggests the intriguing possibility that oxLDL/beta(2)-GPI complexes may also play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and/or cardiovascular complications in DM.