Oxidized LDL stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinases in smooth muscle cells and macrophages.

It has been proposed that oxidized LDL is more atherogenic than native LDL. However, the mechanisms by which native LDL and oxidized LDL alter function of cells in the vessel wall remain undefined. A signal transduction pathway that mediates many changes in cell function is the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. We therefore examined the effect… CONTINUE READING