Maternal Supplementation with RRR-α-Tocopherol (400 IU) and Its Relationship with Serum and Breast Milk Retinol
Background/objectives:Oxidative stress and micronutrient deficiencies have been related to lower birth weight (BW), small for gestational age (SGA) offspring and preterm delivery.Subjects/methods:The relation between neonatal outcome (BW, head circumference, SGA, preterm delivery) with markers of oxidative stress and micronutrients in maternal and cord blood was to be examined. Oxidative stress markers (protein carbonyls (PrCarb), 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT), malondialdehyde (MDA)), total protein concentration and lipid-soluble micronutrients (carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols) were measured in 200 newborns (11% preterms, 13% SGA) and 151 mothers. Associations between target parameters in cord plasma and maternal serum with BW, head circumference and risk of being SGA or preterm were explored.Results:Maternal protein concentration, PrCarb, MDA and all lipid-soluble micronutrients were significantly higher compared with newborns, except for 3NT, which was significantly elevated in newborns. Newborn parameters correlated positively with those of mothers. Preterms had lower proteins and retinol but higher PrCarb than terms. Maternal PrCarb and retinol were inversely associated with BW and head circumference. Mothers with PrCarb, MDA and retinol in the highest quintile had a 3.3-fold (0.9; 12.1), 2.1-fold (0.7; 6.4) and 3.3-fold (1.2; 9.4) risk, respectively, for delivering an SGA newborn, whereas the lowest quintile of retinol in cord blood was associated with an increased risk for preterm delivery.Conclusions:Oxidative stress (elevated PrCarb) was associated with lower BW/head circumference and SGA. Inadequate hemodilution may explain the inverse relation of maternal retinol with BW and head circumference, and the association between highest maternal retinol and risk for SGA.