Evaluation of oxidative stress markers in the heart and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum) exposed to the formalin
The formaldehyde (FA) is a crosslinking agent that reacts with cellular macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids and molecules with low molecular weight such as amino acids, and it has been linked to inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. This study aimed to analyze the oxidative effects on pulmonary inflammatory response in Fischer rats exposed to different concentrations of FA. Twenty-eight Fischer rats were divided into 4 groups (N = 7). The control group (CG) was exposed to ambient air and three groups were exposed to different concentrations of FA: 1% (FA1%), 5% (FA5%) and 10% (FA10%). In the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF), the exposure to a concentration of 10% promoted the increase of inflammatory cells compared to CG. There was also an increase of macrophages and lymphocytes in FA10% and lymphocytes in FA5% compared to CG. The activity of NADPH oxidase in the blood had been higher in FA5% and FA10% compared to CG. The activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) had an increase in FA5% and the activity of the catalase enzyme (CAT) showed an increase in FA1% compared to CG. As for the glutathione system, there was an increase in total glutathione (tGSH), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in FA5% compared to CG. The reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) had a decrease in FA5% compared to CG. There was an increase in lipid peroxidation compared to all groups and the protein carbonyl formation in FA10% compared to CG. We also observed an increase in CCL2 and CCL5 chemokines in the treatment groups compared to CG and in serum there was an increase in CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5 compared to CG. Our results point out to the potential of formaldehyde in promoting airway injury by increasing the inflammatory process as well as by the redox imbalance.