Oxidative and nitrosative stress in ammonia neurotoxicity.


Increased ammonia accumulation in the brain due to liver dysfunction is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Fatal outcome of rapidly progressing (acute) HE is mainly related to cytotoxic brain edema associated with astrocytic swelling. An increase of brain ammonia in experimental animals or treatment of cultured… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuint.2012.10.013