Ovoviviparity and viviparity in the Diptera

@article{Meier1999OvoviviparityAV,
  title={Ovoviviparity and viviparity in the Diptera},
  author={Rudolf Meier and Marion Kotrba and Paul Ferrar},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={1999},
  volume={74}
}
The taxonomic distribution and evolution of viviparity in Diptera is critically reviewed. The phenomenon ranges from ovoviviparity (eggs deposited at an advanced stage of embryonic development; larva emerges immediately after deposition), through viviparity (larva hatches inside female before deposition) to pupiparity (offspring deposited as pupa). Some Diptera are known to be facultatively viviparous, which is hypothesized to be a step towards the evolution of obligate viviparity. Obligate… 

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