Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe

@article{Desmedt2016OverviewOS,
  title={Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe},
  author={Bart Desmedt and P. Courselle and Jacques O. De Beer and Vera Maria Rogiers and Martine Grosber and Erick Deconinck and Kristien de Paepe},
  journal={Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology},
  year={2016},
  volume={30}
}
Lightening skin tone is an ancient and well‐documented practice, and remains common practice among many cultures. Whitening agents such as corticosteroids, tretinoin and hydroquinone are medically applied to effectively lighten the skin tone of hyperpigmented lesions. However, when these agents are used cosmetically, they are associated with a variety of side‐effect. Alternative agents, such as arbutin and its derivatives kojic acid and nicotinamide have been subsequently developed for cosmetic… 

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