Overview of HIV

  title={Overview of HIV},
  author={Nancy Klimas and Anne O'Brien Koneru and Mary Ann Fletcher},
  journal={Psychosomatic Medicine},
This article provides an overview and reviews the HIV pandemic, the basic biology and immunology of the virus (e.g., genetic diversity of HIV and the viral life cycle), the phases of disease progression, modes of HIV transmission, HIV testing, immune response to the infection, and current therapeutic strategies. HIV is occurring in epidemic proportions, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the US, men who have sex with men account for over half of AIDS diagnoses; racial and ethnic minorities… 
Antiretroviral Strategies for Treatment of HIV
HIV (Human Immuno deficiency Virus) is a Lenti virus a member of Retro viral family which causes Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) – which particularly affects Immune system. HIV remains the
Genotyping and antiretroviral drug resistance of human immunodeficiency Virus-1 in Jazan, Saudi Arabia
The prevalence of HIV-1 antiretroviral resistance mutations is 22.8% in the studied population, which may warrant antireTroviral drug resistance testing as a pretreatment to help and guide physicians for the proper HIV treatment.
Insights from an individual-level model of HIV programmes in southern Africa : HIV testing, ART and resistance
This thesis evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative ways of increasing the number of adults receiving ART in South Africa: increasing the CD4 count threshold at which a person is eligible to be initiated on ART, or maintaining the eligibility criteria to CD4 counted below 350 cells/μL, and the impact these two alternatives would have on the development and transmission of resistance.
Analysis of CD4+ T cells in HIV-1 infection model combined with RTI and PI treatments
Simulation results showed that reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) therapy was more effective compared to protease inhibitors (PI) therapy in increasing the number of healthy CD4 + T cells.
Virologic failure and HIV-1 drug resistance among antiretroviral therapy recipients in an urban resource-limited setting - the South African Virologic Evaluation (SAVE) study
The association between coming late for drug refill visits, as one of the World Health Organization Early Warning Indicators (WHO-EWIs), and treatment failure was assessed, and both types of failure were associated with coming late to drug refill.
Modeling of HIV-1 infection incorporating cell-to-cell transmission and viral clearance of CD4+T cells
A mathematical model is developed by incorporating the viral infection through cell-cell, viral degradation, and the effect of antiretroviral treatments to explore the implication of the combination of RTI and PI therapy in various scenarios and theeffect of viral clearance.
Detection of emerging HIV variants in blood donors from urban areas of Cameroon.
The results indicate that the assays had high sensitivity for detection of emerging genetic variants, although a small number of samples harboring circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) found in Cameroon were not always consistently detected by a few assays.
Impact of gender, sexual orientation and socio-economic factors on HIV treatment outcomes in the UK
Investigation of differences in virological response to ART, treatment adherence, and late HIV diagnosis by gender and sexual orientation among people with HIV in the UK, and whether any differences have narrowed in more recent years identified ongoing disparities in HIV outcomes between gender/sexual orientation groups.
HIV and Tuberculosis Trends in the United States and Select Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
Results showed that percent rates of TB cases, TB deaths, HIV cases and HIV deaths were significantly different among these countries from 1993 to 2006; South Africa had the highest rates of HIV and TB; while US had the lowest rates of both diseases.


Hepatitis C and progression of HIV disease.
Among patients in this urban US cohort, there was no evidence that HCV infection substantially alters the risk of dying, developing AIDS, or responding immunologically to HAART, especially after accounting for differences in its administration and effectiveness.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pharmacogenomics in clinical practice: relevance of HIV-1 drug resistance testing (Part 2).
  • R. Patarca, Alejandro Isava, M. Fletcher
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer
  • 2003
This report summarizes studies published to date on the significance of testing of HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs and no published clinical trial results on the usefulness of the so-called virtual phenotype over genotypic sequencing alone are published.
Impact of hepatitis C on HIV progression in adults with alcohol problems.
Hepatitis C virus infection has an adverse effect on CD4 cell count in patients with alcohol problems who are adherent to ART, and addressing HCV coinfection among these patients may confer additional immunologic benefit for this patient population.
Gastrointestinal complications of HIV infection: changing priorities in the HAART era
It has now been some 25 years since the initial description of AIDS and intense investigation has better characterised HIV, resulting in the development of effective drug therapies to arrest disease progression and, especially in the developing world, the cost and complexities of these regimens.
HIV Pathogenesis: Knowledge Gained after Two Decades of Research
  • J. Levy
  • Biology
    Advances in dental research
  • 2006
More details are needed about HIV's infection cycle and its pathologic effects in the body, as well as adaptive and innate immune activities mediating this anti-HIV effect.
Should resistance testing be performed for treatment-naive HIV-infected patients? A cost-effectiveness analysis.
  • P. Sax, Runa Islam, K. Freedberg
  • Medicine, Political Science
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2005
Genotype-resistance testing of chronically HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive patients is likely to improve clinical outcomes and is cost-effective, compared with other HIV care in the United States.
The role of the thymus in HIV infection: a 10 year perspective
The data published during the last 10 years show that a possible increase in thymic output has an instrumental role in the immunopathogenesis that takes place during the clinically asymptomatic phase of HIV-1 infection.
Fluctuations of HIV load in semen of HIV positive patients with newly acquired sexually transmitted diseases
The HIV load in the semen and blood of HIV infected patients presenting with acute sexually transmitted diseases was measured to determine if viral load was high enough to ensure transmission.
The challenge of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 infection.
The latent reservoir in resting CD4(+) T cells appears to be sufficient to guarantee lifetime persistence of HIV-1 in the majority of patients on current HAART regimens, and unless new approaches are developed, eradication will not be possible.
HIV-therapy associated lipodystrophy: experimental and clinical evidence for the pathogenesis and treatment.
Specific attention will be given to the role of NRTI and PI on adipocyte development, function, and mitochondrial integrity leading to fat loss, fat accumulation, and increase of serum lipids.