Overvaluation of own attributes: Mere ownership or subjective frequency?

@article{Hoorens1993OvervaluationOO,
  title={Overvaluation of own attributes: Mere ownership or subjective frequency?},
  author={Vera Hoorens and Jozef M. Nuttin},
  journal={Social Cognition},
  year={1993},
  volume={11},
  pages={177-200}
}
The hypothesis was tested that the Name-Letter Effect or affective overvaluation of own name-letters as compared to non-name-letters (Nuttin, 1985, 1987) is due to an enhanced subjective frequency of own name-letters as compared to non-name-letters. Experiment 1 yielded a Name-Letter Effect and an overestimation of own name-letters' frequencies as compared to non-name-letters. Both effects were correlated. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated both effects but not their correlation. In Experiment 3… 
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Two experiments with final-year students attending a university in Belgium showed support for name-letter preferences in job-choice intentions and there was no support for the hypothesized moderating role of cognitive load.
Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.
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It is shown that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable and should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem.
On the nature of implicit self-esteem: The case of the name letter effect.
In 1811, Napoleon (whose armies occupied The Netherlands) ruled that all Dutch citizens should have their family names registered. At the time of Napoleon's decree, family names were used only by
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