Overdiagnosis and consequent mismanagement of head louse infestations in North America

  title={Overdiagnosis and consequent mismanagement of head louse infestations in North America},
  author={Richard J. Pollack and Anthony E. Kiszewski and Andrew Spielman},
  journal={The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal},
Background. Lay personnel and many health care workers in the United States believe that head louse infestations caused by Pediculus capitis are exceedingly transmissible and that infested children readily infest others. Schoolchildren therefore frequently become ostracized and remain so until no signs of their presumed infestations are evident. Repeated applications of pediculicidal product and chronic school absenteeism frequently result. Methods. To determine how frequently louse-related… 

International guidelines for effective control of head louse infestations.

It is suggested that health authorities should introduce more efficient methods for evaluating pediculicides and more stringent regulations for adoption of new anti-louse products and companies should develop effective and safe repellents and nit removal remedies.

Pediculosis and scabies.

Body lice infestation should be suspected when symptoms of generalized itching occur in persons who do not change or wash their clothing or bedding regularly and environmental measures are important to prevent recurrent infestation.

Economic Considerations Associated With Pediculus humanus capitis Infestation

An overview of direct and indirect costs of infestation are included in this review, along with a discussion of factors that lead to misuse and overuse of pediculicides.

Pediculosis capitis: new insights into epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment

  • H. Feldmeier
  • Medicine, Biology
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
  • 2012
The optimal method for the diagnosis of active head lice infestation is dry/wet combing, and topical application of a pediculicide is the most common treatment.

Pediculus humanus capitis infestations in the community: A pilot study into transmission, treatment and factors affecting control

It is found that children attending school and early childhood centres, and subsequently their families, are most at risk of contracting pediculosis capitis, and some may carry lice for years, and a strong case exists for returning to institutional surveillance.

Pediculus capitis, infestation according to sex and social factors in Gaza Governorate

There was a significant relationship between head louse infestation, family size, number of rooms in the homes, family income, frequency of shampooing and combing the hair and frequency of examination the hair for lice.

Common pediatric infestations: update on diagnosis and treatment of scabies, head lice, and bed bugs

Permethrin and ivermectin are both considered safe and effective for children and adolescents with scabies and proper application of permethrin is critical, and providers should emphasize proper application technique.

Infestation of Head Lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, in Primary School Children at Houn City, Libya

  • Medicine
  • 2019
It is concluded that pediculosis constitutes a public health problem among primary schoolchildren in Houn city and collaborative and participation efforts among physicians, teachers, and parents are necessary to maintain effective epidemiological surveillance and provide treatment.

Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Argentina.

The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures.

Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation among kindergarten children in Bahía Blanca city, Argentina

From a total of 220 pupils examined (125 girls and 95 boys), 94 showed pediculosis, indicating that head lice are relatively common in kindergarten children from Bahía Blanca, and no differences were found between socioeconomic classes.



Differential permethrin susceptibility of head lice sampled in the United States and Borneo.

Head lice in the United States are less susceptible to permethrin than are those in Sabah, and these relatively safe over-the-counter preparations may remain the pediculicides of choice for newly recognized louse infestations.

Comprehensive pediculosis screening programs for elementary schools.

Establishing a successful approach to control pediculosis results in decreased incidence and transmission, reduced absenteeism, and financial savings for parents and school districts.

Molecular Analysis of kdr-like Resistance in Permethrin-Resistant Strains of Head Lice, Pediculus capitis

The significantly higher levels of resistance determined using the knockdown ratios compared to the mortality ratios suggest that nerve insensitivity, most likely mediated by mutations within sodium channel genes, is a principal mechanism associated with resistance.

Pharmacy-based evaluation and treatment of minor illnesses in a culturally diverse pediatric clinic.

A new clinical service for an urban ambulatory pediatric clinic with a large immigrant population that allows pharmacists to evaluate and to treat children and adolescents aged 6 months to 19 years with minor acute illnesses and to provide bilingual patient education materials is designed.

Images in clinical medicine. Pediculosis capitis.

Fighting for Life

  • N. Levinsky
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
  • 1986