Over-browsing in Pennsylvania creates a depauperate forest dominated by an understory tree: Results from a 60-year-old deer exclosure

@inproceedings{Kain2011OverbrowsingIP,
  title={Over-browsing in Pennsylvania creates a depauperate forest dominated by an understory tree: Results from a 60-year-old deer exclosure},
  author={Morgan P. Kain and Loretta L. Battaglia and Alejandro A. Royo and Walter P. Carson},
  year={2011}
}
Abstract We evaluated the impact of long-term over-browsing by white-tailed deer on the diversity and density of trees in a forest in the Allegheny High Plateau region of central Pennsylvania. We compared tree diversity and density inside a 60 year-old deer exclosure to an adjacent reference site. Browsing caused a 55–100% decline in density of four tree species (Prunus serotina, Acer saccharum, Betula lenta, Cornus alternifolia) and created a forest dominated (> 70% of all stems) by Acer… 
Long-term impacts of deer exclosures on mixed-oak forest composition at the Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA1
Abstract Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer) populations at Valley Forge National Historical Park in southeastern Pennsylvania have ranged from 70 to 93 deer per square km over the
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The results suggest that deer exclusion had contrasting effects on species richness, depending on plant life form, but that overall richness of both exotic and native plants declined with deer exclusion, and site heterogeneity remained an important driver of vegetation dynamics even in the midst of high deer densities.
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Long-term impacts of deer exclosures on mixed-oak forest composition at the Valley Forge National Historical Park , Pennsylvania , USA 1
ABRAMS, M. D. AND S. E. JOHNSON (School of Forest Resources, Forest Resources Building, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802). Long-term impacts of deer exclosures on mixed-oak forest
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Intensive Selective Deer Browsing Favors Success of Asimina triloba (Paw Paw) a Native Tree Species
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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