Renal, auricular, and ocular outcomes of Alport syndrome and their current management
INTRODUCTION Alport syndrome is an inherited renal disease characterized by hematuria, renal failure, hearing loss and a lamellated glomerular basement membrane. Patients with Alport syndrome who undergo renal transplantation have been shown to have patient and graft survival rates similar to or better than those of patients with other renal diseases. METHODS In this national case series, based in Beaumont Hospital Dublin, we studied the cohort of patients who underwent renal transplantation over the past 33 years, recorded prospectively in the Irish Renal Transplant Registry, and categorized them according to the presence or absence of Alport syndrome. The main outcomes assessed were patient and renal allograft survival. RESULTS Fifty-one patients diagnosed with Alport syndrome in Beaumont Hospital received 62 transplants between 1982 and 2014. The comparison group of non-Alport patients comprised 3430 patients for 3865 transplants. Twenty-year Alport patient survival rate was 70.2%, compared to 44.8% for patients with other renal diseases (p = .01). Factors associated with patient survival included younger age at transplantation as well as differences in recipient sex, donor age, cold ischemia time, and episodes of acute rejection. Twenty-year graft survival was 46.8% for patients with Alport syndrome compared to 30.2% for those with non-Alport disease (p = .11). CONCLUSIONS Adjusting for baseline differences between the groups, patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to Alport syndrome have similar patient and graft survival to those with other causes of ESKD. This indicates that early diagnosis and management can lead to favorable outcomes for this patient cohort.