Mineral and bone disorders that precede kidney transplantation are exacerbated in the post-transplant setting by tertiary hyperparathyroidism and immunosuppressive regimens. Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases following transplantation, leading to increased fracture risk. The effect of bisphosphonates on fracture is unknown. The aim of this study was to update estimates of change in BMD and fracture rates in bisphosphonate-treated kidney transplant recipients through meta-analysis. Studies comparing bisphosphonate therapy to standard of care were included if follow-up duration was more than 6 months. We performed random-effects meta-analysis to determine the effect of bisphosphonates on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and fracture rates. Bisphosphonates improved femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD compared with controls (0.055 g/cm(2) , 95% CI 0.012-0.099 and 0.053 g/cm(2) , 95% CI 0.032-0.074, respectively) without adversely affecting serum creatinine or calcium. This corresponded to an unweighted improvement in BMD of 6.0% and 7.4%, respectively. There was no difference in fracture incidence in the two groups. Bisphosphonate therapy in kidney transplant recipients is associated with a statistically significant improvement in BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. There was no difference in fracture incidence. Bisphosphonates did not adversely affect allograft dysfunction or serum calcium levels.