An analytic study on maternal and fetal complications as the pregnancy outcome in teenage pregnancy
- Vidya A. Thobbi, Vibhavaree Dandavate, Bhagyashree Bijjaragi, Nisha Askar
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to evaluate the obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcomes of teenage pregnancy in a tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODS A retrospective case control study was performed over a period of 5 years. Data were retrieved from hospital records. All teenage mothers (aged 13-19 completed years at delivery) delivering in the University Hospital were taken as cases. Next 3 consecutive deliveries in the age group of 20-30 year were selected as controls for each case. For statistical analysis the cases were further subdivided into 2 groups, 17 years (Group A) and 18 -19 years (Group B). Groups were compared for obstetric complications and neonatal outcome. Statistical analysis was done by software package SPSS 10. RESULTS The incidence of teenage deliveries in hospital over last 5 years was 4.1%. Majority of the teenagers were primigravida (83.2% vs. 41.4%, p< 0.01). Complications like pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) (11.4% vs 2.2%, p< 0.01), pre-eclamptic toxemia (PET) (4.3% vs 0.6%, p< 0.01) eclampsia (4.9% vs 0.6%, p< 0.01) and premature onset of labor (26.1% vs 14.6%, p< 0.01) occurred more commonly in teenagers compared to controls. Teenage mothers also had increased incidence of low birth weight (LBW) (50.4% vs 32.3%, p< 0.01), premature delivery (51.8% vs 17.5%, p< 0.01) and neonatal morbidities like perinatal asphyxia (11.7% vs 1.9%, p< 0.01), jaundice (5.7% vs 1.2%, p< 0.01) and respiratory distress syndrome (1.9% vs 0.3%, p< 0.05). Teenage pregnancy was also associated with higher fetal (1.9% vs 0.3%, p< 0.05) and neonatal mortality (3.8% vs 0.5%, p< 0.05). CONCLUSION Teenage pregnancy was associated with a significantly higher risk of PIH, PET, eclampsia, premature onset of labor, fetal deaths and premature delivery. Increased neonatal morbidity and mortality were also seen in babies delivered to teenage mothers. Younger teenager group (17 years) was most vulnerable to adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes.