OBJECTIVE To determine the vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) rate and risk of uterine rupture in women with a previous early preterm cesarean section. METHODS Women who delivered their first child by cesarean section between 26 and 34 weeks of gestation were included in a retrospective cohort study. Medical charts were reviewed for characteristics of the index pregnancy and delivery. Information of the subsequent delivery was obtained from the medical charts or from information of the attending gynecologist if the delivery was elsewhere. RESULTS Two hundred and forty-six women were included: 131 (53.3%) women had a subsequent pregnancy, 64 (26.0%) had no subsequent pregnancy, and from 51 (20.7%) women no information could be obtained. Of the 131 women with a subsequent pregnancy, 93 (71.0%) underwent a trial of labor (TOL) and 80 (86.0%) achieved a vaginal delivery, resulting in a VBAC rate of 61.1%. One uterine rupture occurred with favorable neonatal outcome. The uterine rupture rate for the whole cohort was 0.8% (95% CI 0.02-4.0) and for the group of women undergoing a TOL 1.1% (95% CI 0.03-5.8). CONCLUSION In this small series of women with a previous early preterm cesarean section the VBAC rate was high (61.1%) and the uterine rupture rate was 1.1%.