INTRODUCTION Malaria is the most frequent mosquito-borne parasitic infection in the tropical regions of the world. Due to different factors, including climate change, this disease can emerge or reemerge in different areas in the planet. OBJECTIVE To describe an autochthonous outbreak of urban malaria in Armenia, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS After two children consulted a second level hospital located in the south of Armenia with malaria symptoms and their diagnosis was confirmed through the presence of Plasmodium vivax trophozoites detected by a positive thick blood smear, a visit was conducted to the residence of the children. An active search for cases was carried out, the environmental and sociocultural conditions were described and mosquito larvae and pupae were collected and identified. Control measures were implemented and their effectiveness was evaluated as well. RESULTS The active search in the community allowed the identification of 11 probable cases, three of which were P. vivax malaria cases in children confirmed by blood microscopy. The entomological analysis of mosquito larvae and pupae showed Anopheles spp., Anopheles punctimacula and Anopheles argyritarsis. CONCLUSION This is the first report of an autochthonous malaria outbreak by P. vivax in the city of Armenia, associated with the subnormal settlement of an indigenous community. The banks of the Quindío river offer the eco-epidemiological conditions that allow the establishment of the reproductive cycle of the malaria mosquito vector.