Outbreak of epidemic typhus associated with trench fever in Burundi

@article{Raoult1998OutbreakOE,
  title={Outbreak of epidemic typhus associated with trench fever in Burundi},
  author={Didier Raoult and J. B. Ndihokubwayo and Herv{\'e} Tissot-Dupont and Véronique Roux and Bernard Faugère and R Abegbinni and R. J. Birtles},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={1998},
  volume={352},
  pages={353-358}
}
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It is shown that typhus remains a risk among refugee populations in all parts of the world, despite its omission from a recent review of health care in refugee camps, and is the first of the rickettsial infections to show evidence of resistance to standard antibiotics.
Typhus Group Rickettsiae Antibodies in Rural Mexico
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The risk of transmission of epidemic typhus in the state of Mexico was assessed by analyzing serum specimens from 393 residents of previous typhogenic areas for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against Rickettsia prowazekii, and a titer of 64 or higher was considered positive.
Seroprevalence of typhus fever at the Kality Prison, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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The prevalence of typhus fever infection at Kality prison was high, and this high prevalence could be a possible risk for epidemic typhus Fever infection within the prison and for the nearby population.
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    Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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Reports of a significantly high seroprevalence for epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever in the homeless populations of developed countries suggest that these populations remain at high risk for outbreaks of these diseases.
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Strategies for control of epidemics of louse-borne typhus in refugee camps must include two elements of intervention: antimicrobial treatment of patients with suspected cases and delousing of the entire population at risk.
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Paleomicrobiology enabled the identification of the first outbreak of epidemic typhus in the 18th century in the context of a pan-European great war in the city of Douai, France, and supported the hypothesis that typhus was imported into Europe by Spanish soldiers returning from America.
A Mixed Outbreak of Epidemic Typhus Fever and Trench Fever in a Youth Rehabilitation Center: Risk Factors for Illness from a Case-Control Study, Rwanda, 2012.
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Stronger surveillance and improvements in hygiene could prevent future outbreaks of epidemic typhus fever and trench fever in a male youth rehabilitation center in western Rwanda.
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Abstract:  Currently, several rickettsioses are officially being reported in the Russian Federation. These are epidemic typhus and Brill–Zinsser disease, both caused by Rickettsia prowazekii which
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Arthropod-borne diseases continue to emerge within the deprived population and public health programs should be engaged rapidly to control these pests and reduce the incidence of these transmissible diseases.
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