Out of Place

  title={Out of Place},
  author={Leo Carroll and M. Liliana Gonzalez},
  journal={Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency},
  pages={559 - 584}
Objectives: Test hypotheses drawn from Smith and Alpert’s social conditioning theory that explains biased policing as the result of implicit racial stereotypes. Distinguishing between frisks and searches, we hypothesize that (1) Black drivers are more likely than White drivers to be frisked and searched; (2) racial disparity is greater in frisks than searches; (3) racial disparity in frisks, but not searches, is conditional upon the racial composition of the community; and (4) that drivers… 

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