Out-burst flood (lahar) triggered by retrogressive landsliding, 18 March 2007 at Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand—a successful early warning

  title={Out-burst flood (lahar) triggered by retrogressive landsliding, 18 March 2007 at Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand—a successful early warning},
  author={Christopher I. Massey and Vern Manville and Graham H. Hancox and Harry J. R. Keys and Colin Lawrence and Mauri McSaveney},
The summit crater of Mt Ruapehu volcano normally hosts a 15.4-ha warm lake, whose water has been repeatedly wholly or partly ejected by explosive and extrusive eruptions. Some of the larger eruptions have modified the lake outlet by burying it under unconsolidated tephra (volcanic ash and blocks), creating a dam-break flood hazard independently of the occurrence of an eruption. Eruptions in 1995 and 1996 followed this sequence; a break-out flood was anticipated and a warning system was… 
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Probabilistic analysis of rain-triggered lahar initiation at Tungurahua volcano
Semi-continuous production of pyroclastic material by intermittent strombolian, vulcanian and sub-plinian eruptions at Volcán Tungurahua, Ecuador has created a persistent rain-triggered lahar hazard
Volcano-Hydrologic Hazards from Volcanic Lakes
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Organisational Response to the 2007 Ruapehu Crater Lake Dam-Break Lahar in New Zealand: Use of Communication in Creating an Effective Response
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Assessment and Mitigation of Dam-break Lahar Hazards from Mt Ruapehu Crater Lake Following the 1995-96 Eruptions
The 1995-96 eruptions of Mt Ruapehu caused significant changes to the crater area, which have important implications for the hazard from future lahars when the lake refills. A 7m thick layer of
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Sedimentology and flow behavior of a rain-triggered lahar, Mangatoetoenui Stream, Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand
On October 28, 1995, heavy rain triggered failure of approximately 3.3 × 10 5 m 3 of fall deposits on the Mangatoetoenui Glacier and generated a lahar event that flowed east-northeast of Ruapehu
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Abstract New Zealand hosts numerous lakes in its active volcanic areas. These water bodies are developed in calderas, volcano‐tectonic collapse structures, explosion craters, and valleys dammed by
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Abstract. A feature of small-scale explosive volcanism at stratovolcanoes is the rapid destruction of primary near-vent pyroclastic deposits by sedimentary processes. A protracted series of explosive
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Abstract The Onetapu Formation represents a sequence of at least 17 volcanic diamictons that were emplaced over the last c. 2000 14C yr by lahars in the Whangaehu River catchment, covering part of